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J Cosmet Med 2021; 5(1): 7-15

Published online June 30, 2021

https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2021.5.1.7

Non-permanent tattoo application of internet of things three-dimensional printer for beauty-art

Jisu Lee, MS1,2 , Abhilash Aditya, PhD1,2 , Jihye Kim, BFA3 , Namsoo Peter Kim, PhD1,2,3

1Department of Metallurgical Materials and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States
2Center for Printable Materials Certificates, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States
3Brain Pool Program, K-CBD Center, Korea University, Seoul, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to :
Namsoo Peter Kim
E-mail: nkim@utep.edu

Received: April 15, 2021; Revised: May 30, 2021; Accepted: May 31, 2021

© Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background: The emphasis on non-face-to-face or untact operation services is on the rise due to the ongoing widespread of COVID-19 epidemics, which have caused severe damage worldwide. Untact technology has been applied not only to everyday life but also to the beauty art industry that relies on customer service with contact.
Objective: A safe non-permanent tattoo ink is necessary to overcome the stigma of permanent tattoos and tattoo removal procedures. The purpose of this study is to efficiently deliver non-permanent tattoo ink into the skin through sophisticated untact printing techniques and safe silver compound ink, further minimizing the side effects due to unsanitary conditions.
Methods: Silver-gelatin compound ink serves as an excellent alternative for conventional permanent tattoos with additives. Pistontype extruder (PTE) system and internet of things (IoT) integrated precision-controlled non-permanent and untact system using silver nanoparticle ink.
Results: Complex and sophisticated designs were three-dimensional (3D) printed using a non-permanent tattoo ink containing an optimum concentration of Ag+ under 5 N compression force through a 100 μm radius nozzle and diffused up to 200 μm into the stratum corneum through skin contact. Intradermal diffusion simulation and disappearance of the ink within two weeks of the human skin replacement cycle were successfully demonstrated.
Conclusion: The integration of IoT and 3D printers has enabled a hygienic untact tattoo printing technique that has been verified through repeated testing. This study could arouse positive possibilities and interests in the rapidly changing beauty art fields. It provides a new tattoo methodology and further research ideas for the 3D printing applications in tattoo production.

Keywords: nano-silver ink, non-permanent tattoo printing, piston-type extruder printing method, three-dimensional printer, three-dimensional printing

Fig. 1.The assembled piston-type extruder (PTE) equipment using a pressure and temperature sensor. (A) Wall Mounted 3D Printer, (B) Monkey Bar Style 3D Printer, and (C) schematic image of PTE in the 3D printer with silver-gelatin compound ink.
  1. Puri N, Puri A. A study on contact dermatitis to hair dye and henna. Our Dermatol Online 2013;4:545-8.
    CrossRef
  2. Thami GP, Kaur S, Kanwar AJ. Allergic contact dermatitis to henna. Allergy 2001;56:1013-4.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Pasricha JS, Gupta R, Panjwani S. Contact dermatitis to henna (Lawsonia). Contact Dermatitis 1980;6:288-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kang IJ, Lee MH. Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55:26-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Jappe U, Hausen BM, Petzoldt D. Erythema-multiformelike eruption and depigmentation following allergic contact dermatitis from a paint-on henna tattoo, due to para-phenylenediamine contact hypersensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 2001;45:249-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Brancaccio RR, Brown LH, Chang YT, Fogelman JP, Mafong EA, Cohen DE. Identification and quantification of paraphenylenediamine in a temporary black henna tattoo. Am J Contact Dermat 2002;13:15-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Mohamed M, Nixon R. Severe allergic contact dermatitis induced by paraphenylenediamine in paint-on temporary ‘tattoos’. Australas J Dermatol 2000;41:168-71.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Aktas Sukuroglu A, Battal D, Burgaz S. Monitoring of Lawsone, p-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in commercial temporary black henna tattoos sold in Turkey. Contact Dermatitis 2017;76:89-95.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Williams NX, Noyce S, Cardenas JA, Catenacci M, Wiley BJ, Franklin AD. Silver nanowire inks for direct-write electronic tattoo applications. Nanoscale 2019;11:14294-302.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Huang HH, Ni XP, Loy GL, Chew CH, Tan KL, Loh FC, et al. Photochemical formation of silver nanoparticles in poly (Nvinylpyrrolidone). Langmuir 1996;12:909-12.
    CrossRef
  11. Nagarajan B, Jaiprakashnarain GB. Design and application of nano silver based POU appliances for disinfection of drinking water. Indian J Sci Technol 2009;2:5-8.
    CrossRef
  12. Starovoytov ON, Kim NS, Han KN. Dissolution behavior of silver in ammoniacal solutions using bromine, iodine and hydrogen-peroxide as oxidants. Hydrometallurgy 2007;86:114-9.
    CrossRef
  13. Ahamed M, Majeed Khan MA, Siddiqui MKJ, AISalhi MS, Alrokayan SA. Green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles. Physica E 2011;43:1266-71.
    CrossRef
  14. Nath S, Kalmodia S, Basu B. Densification, phase stability and in vitro biocompatibility property of hydroxyapatite-10 wt% silver composites. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2010;21:1273-87.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Kramer O. What is the stratum corneum? [Internet]. San Francisco, CA: Healthline; c2019 [cited 2019 Aug 1].
    Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/stratum-corneum.
  16. Lucy H. What is a skin cycle? [Internet]. Leeds: Medifine; c2017 [cited 2019 Aug 1].
    Available from: https://www.medifine. co.uk/what-is-a-skin-cycle.
  17. Kim NP, Cho D, Zielewski M. Optimization of 3D printing parameters of Screw Type Extrusion (STE) for ceramics using the Taguchi method. Ceram Int 2019;45(2 Pt A):2351-60.
    CrossRef
  18. Kim NP, Eo J, Cho D. Optimization of piston type extrusion (PTE) techniques for 3D printed food. J Food Eng 2018;235:41-9.
    CrossRef
  19. Kim NS, Han KN, Church KH. Direct writing technology for 21st century industries - focus on micro-dispensing deposition write technology. Proc Korean Soc Mach Tool Eng Spring Conf 2007;5:511-5.
  20. Kim NP, Kim J, Han MS. The convergence of three-dimensional printing and nail-art technology. J Cosmet Med 2019;3:94-101.
    CrossRef
  21. Park CJ, Aditya A, Kim NP. Conformal projection printing method to increase the accuracy of 3D printed nails. J Cosmet Sci 2020;71:167-78.
  22. Kim NP. Internet-of-things nail-printing technology using non-face-to-face contact. J Cosmet Med 2020;4:23-8.
    CrossRef
  23. Mendoza KL, Ortega A, Kim NS. Optimization of UV LEDcurable ink for reverse-offset roll-to-plate (RO-R2P) printing. J Electron Mater 2015;44:784-91.
    CrossRef
  24. Kim NP, Cepeda B, Kim J, Yue G, Kim S, Kim H. IoT Controlled screw-type 3D food printer using single line design technique. 2018 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI);2018 December 12-14;Las Vegas, USA. p. 978-83.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  25. Kim S, Kim J, Cepeda B, Kim NP. Single line design technique to improve the accuracy of drug delivery system: piston type extrusion. 2018 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI);2018 December 12-14;Las Vegas, USA. p. 709-14.
    CrossRef
  26. Hong S, Kim N. Synthesis of 3D printable Cu-Ag core-shell materials: kinetics of CuO film removal. J Electron Mater 2015;44:823-30.
    CrossRef
  27. Fick A. V. On liquid diffusion. Philos Mag 1855;10:30-9.
    CrossRef

Article

Original Article

J Cosmet Med 2021; 5(1): 7-15

Published online June 30, 2021 https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2021.5.1.7

Copyright © Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery.

Non-permanent tattoo application of internet of things three-dimensional printer for beauty-art

Jisu Lee, MS1,2 , Abhilash Aditya, PhD1,2 , Jihye Kim, BFA3 , Namsoo Peter Kim, PhD1,2,3

1Department of Metallurgical Materials and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States
2Center for Printable Materials Certificates, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States
3Brain Pool Program, K-CBD Center, Korea University, Seoul, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to:Namsoo Peter Kim
E-mail: nkim@utep.edu

Received: April 15, 2021; Revised: May 30, 2021; Accepted: May 31, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background: The emphasis on non-face-to-face or untact operation services is on the rise due to the ongoing widespread of COVID-19 epidemics, which have caused severe damage worldwide. Untact technology has been applied not only to everyday life but also to the beauty art industry that relies on customer service with contact.
Objective: A safe non-permanent tattoo ink is necessary to overcome the stigma of permanent tattoos and tattoo removal procedures. The purpose of this study is to efficiently deliver non-permanent tattoo ink into the skin through sophisticated untact printing techniques and safe silver compound ink, further minimizing the side effects due to unsanitary conditions.
Methods: Silver-gelatin compound ink serves as an excellent alternative for conventional permanent tattoos with additives. Pistontype extruder (PTE) system and internet of things (IoT) integrated precision-controlled non-permanent and untact system using silver nanoparticle ink.
Results: Complex and sophisticated designs were three-dimensional (3D) printed using a non-permanent tattoo ink containing an optimum concentration of Ag+ under 5 N compression force through a 100 μm radius nozzle and diffused up to 200 μm into the stratum corneum through skin contact. Intradermal diffusion simulation and disappearance of the ink within two weeks of the human skin replacement cycle were successfully demonstrated.
Conclusion: The integration of IoT and 3D printers has enabled a hygienic untact tattoo printing technique that has been verified through repeated testing. This study could arouse positive possibilities and interests in the rapidly changing beauty art fields. It provides a new tattoo methodology and further research ideas for the 3D printing applications in tattoo production.

Keywords: nano-silver ink, non-permanent tattoo printing, piston-type extruder printing method, three-dimensional printer, three-dimensional printing

Fig 1.

Figure 1.The assembled piston-type extruder (PTE) equipment using a pressure and temperature sensor. (A) Wall Mounted 3D Printer, (B) Monkey Bar Style 3D Printer, and (C) schematic image of PTE in the 3D printer with silver-gelatin compound ink.
Journal of Cosmetic Medicine 2021; 5: 7-15https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2021.5.1.7

References

  1. Puri N, Puri A. A study on contact dermatitis to hair dye and henna. Our Dermatol Online 2013;4:545-8.
    CrossRef
  2. Thami GP, Kaur S, Kanwar AJ. Allergic contact dermatitis to henna. Allergy 2001;56:1013-4.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Pasricha JS, Gupta R, Panjwani S. Contact dermatitis to henna (Lawsonia). Contact Dermatitis 1980;6:288-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kang IJ, Lee MH. Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55:26-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Jappe U, Hausen BM, Petzoldt D. Erythema-multiformelike eruption and depigmentation following allergic contact dermatitis from a paint-on henna tattoo, due to para-phenylenediamine contact hypersensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 2001;45:249-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Brancaccio RR, Brown LH, Chang YT, Fogelman JP, Mafong EA, Cohen DE. Identification and quantification of paraphenylenediamine in a temporary black henna tattoo. Am J Contact Dermat 2002;13:15-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Mohamed M, Nixon R. Severe allergic contact dermatitis induced by paraphenylenediamine in paint-on temporary ‘tattoos’. Australas J Dermatol 2000;41:168-71.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Aktas Sukuroglu A, Battal D, Burgaz S. Monitoring of Lawsone, p-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in commercial temporary black henna tattoos sold in Turkey. Contact Dermatitis 2017;76:89-95.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Williams NX, Noyce S, Cardenas JA, Catenacci M, Wiley BJ, Franklin AD. Silver nanowire inks for direct-write electronic tattoo applications. Nanoscale 2019;11:14294-302.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Huang HH, Ni XP, Loy GL, Chew CH, Tan KL, Loh FC, et al. Photochemical formation of silver nanoparticles in poly (Nvinylpyrrolidone). Langmuir 1996;12:909-12.
    CrossRef
  11. Nagarajan B, Jaiprakashnarain GB. Design and application of nano silver based POU appliances for disinfection of drinking water. Indian J Sci Technol 2009;2:5-8.
    CrossRef
  12. Starovoytov ON, Kim NS, Han KN. Dissolution behavior of silver in ammoniacal solutions using bromine, iodine and hydrogen-peroxide as oxidants. Hydrometallurgy 2007;86:114-9.
    CrossRef
  13. Ahamed M, Majeed Khan MA, Siddiqui MKJ, AISalhi MS, Alrokayan SA. Green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles. Physica E 2011;43:1266-71.
    CrossRef
  14. Nath S, Kalmodia S, Basu B. Densification, phase stability and in vitro biocompatibility property of hydroxyapatite-10 wt% silver composites. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2010;21:1273-87.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Kramer O. What is the stratum corneum? [Internet]. San Francisco, CA: Healthline; c2019 [cited 2019 Aug 1]. Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/stratum-corneum.
  16. Lucy H. What is a skin cycle? [Internet]. Leeds: Medifine; c2017 [cited 2019 Aug 1]. Available from: https://www.medifine. co.uk/what-is-a-skin-cycle.
  17. Kim NP, Cho D, Zielewski M. Optimization of 3D printing parameters of Screw Type Extrusion (STE) for ceramics using the Taguchi method. Ceram Int 2019;45(2 Pt A):2351-60.
    CrossRef
  18. Kim NP, Eo J, Cho D. Optimization of piston type extrusion (PTE) techniques for 3D printed food. J Food Eng 2018;235:41-9.
    CrossRef
  19. Kim NS, Han KN, Church KH. Direct writing technology for 21st century industries - focus on micro-dispensing deposition write technology. Proc Korean Soc Mach Tool Eng Spring Conf 2007;5:511-5.
  20. Kim NP, Kim J, Han MS. The convergence of three-dimensional printing and nail-art technology. J Cosmet Med 2019;3:94-101.
    CrossRef
  21. Park CJ, Aditya A, Kim NP. Conformal projection printing method to increase the accuracy of 3D printed nails. J Cosmet Sci 2020;71:167-78.
  22. Kim NP. Internet-of-things nail-printing technology using non-face-to-face contact. J Cosmet Med 2020;4:23-8.
    CrossRef
  23. Mendoza KL, Ortega A, Kim NS. Optimization of UV LEDcurable ink for reverse-offset roll-to-plate (RO-R2P) printing. J Electron Mater 2015;44:784-91.
    CrossRef
  24. Kim NP, Cepeda B, Kim J, Yue G, Kim S, Kim H. IoT Controlled screw-type 3D food printer using single line design technique. 2018 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI);2018 December 12-14;Las Vegas, USA. p. 978-83.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  25. Kim S, Kim J, Cepeda B, Kim NP. Single line design technique to improve the accuracy of drug delivery system: piston type extrusion. 2018 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI);2018 December 12-14;Las Vegas, USA. p. 709-14.
    CrossRef
  26. Hong S, Kim N. Synthesis of 3D printable Cu-Ag core-shell materials: kinetics of CuO film removal. J Electron Mater 2015;44:823-30.
    CrossRef
  27. Fick A. V. On liquid diffusion. Philos Mag 1855;10:30-9.
    CrossRef

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