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J Cosmet Med 2018; 2(2): 85-90

Published online December 31, 2018

https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2018.2.2.85

Association between metabolic syndrome and blepharoptosis in the Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010?2012

Changhyun Koh, MD1, Geunyeong Kim, MD1, Kyungdo Han, MS2, Juwan Park, MD, PhD1

1Department of Ophthalmology, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Rep. of Korea, 2Department of Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to :
Juwan Park, E-mail: parkjw@catholic.ac.kr, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5997-8746

Received: August 30, 2018; Revised: November 28, 2018; Accepted: December 7, 2018

© Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder featuring chronic inflammation characterized by abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recent studies have documented that MetS is associated with various diseases, including ocular disorders.
Objective: This cross-sectional study is based on data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We examined the association between MetS and its components with blepharoptosis in Korean adults aged 19 years or older.
Methods: MetS was defined using the criteria proposed by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute together with the International Diabetes Federation in 2009. Blepharoptosis was defined as the marginal reflex distance 1 of <2 mm.
Results: The prevalence of blepharoptosis was 11.5%. As the number of MetS components increased, the prevalence of blepharoptosis also increased. After being controlled for various confounders, MetS was significantly associated with blepharoptosis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.316; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.133-1.529). In addition, blepharoptosis was associated with increased waist circumference, hypertension, and elevated triglyceride (adjusted OR, 95% CI; 1.281 [1.047-1.567], 1.165 [1.014-1.339], and 1.174 [1.013-1.36], respectively).
Conclusion: Consequently, MetS and its components were associated with blepharoptosis in Korean adults. Screening for blepharoptosis is warranted for patients with MetS.

Keywords: blepharoptosis, metabolic syndome

  1. Finsterer J. Ptosis: causes, presentation, and management. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2003;27:193-204.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Clauser L, Tieghi R, Gali? M. Palpebral ptosis: clinical classification, differential diagnosis, and surgical guidelines: an overview. J Craniofac Surg 2006;17:246-54.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Beard C. A new classification of blepharoptosis. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1989;29:214-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. de Figueiredo AR. Blepharoptosis. Semin Ophthalmol 2010;25:39-51.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Bosco D, Costa R, Plastino M, Branca D, Cotronei P, Sperl? T, et al. Glucose metabolism in the idiopathic blepharoptosis: utility of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and of the insulin resistance index. J Neurol Sci 2009;284:24-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Moon SS, Lee YS. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of blepharoptosis in patients with diabetes in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 20092010. Endocrine 2015;48:504-10.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Chen WL, Wang CC, Wu LW, Kao TW, Chan JY, Chen YJ, et al. Relationship between lung function and metabolic syndrome. PLoS One 2014;9:e108989.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  8. Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al.; International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; Hational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; International Association for the Study of Obesity. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120:1640-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Sumner CJ, Sheth S, Griffin JW, Cornblath DR, Polydefkis M. The spectrum of neuropathy in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Neurology 2003;60:108-11.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Gordon Smith A, Robinson Singleton J. Idiopathic neuropathy, prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome. J Neurol Sci 2006;242:9-14.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Smith AG, Singleton JR. Impaired glucose tolerance and neuropathy. Neurologist 2008;14:23-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Paik JS, Jung SK, Han KD, Kim SD, Park YM, Yang SW. Obesity as a potential risk factor for blepharoptosis: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. PLoS One 2015;10:e0131427.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Yoon KC, Mun GH, Kim SD, Kim SH, Kim CY, Park KH, et al. Prevalence of eye diseases in South Korea: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20082009. Korean J Ophthalmol 2011;25:421-33.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Shirado M. Dyslipidaemia and age-related involutional blepharoptosis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2012;65:e146-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Moon SS. Association of lead, mercury and cadmium with diabetes in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. Diabet Med 2013;30:e143-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Lee J, Lee S, Jang S, Ryu OH. Age-related changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis according to gender and skeletal site:the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2013;28:180-91.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Small RG, Sabates NR, Burrows D. The measurement and definition of ptosis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 1989;5:171-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Iliff JW, Pacheco EM. Ptosis surgery. In: Duane TD, Tasman W, Jaeger EA, editors. Duane’s clinical ophthalmology on CDROM. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins;2001. p. 1-18.
  19. Black E, Nesi FA, Calvano CJ, Gladstone GJ, Levine MR. Smith and Nesi’s ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. 3rd ed. New York: Springer; 2012.
    CrossRef
  20. Bonomini F, Rodella LF, Rezzani R. Metabolic syndrome, aging and involvement of oxidative stress. Aging Dis 2015;6:10920.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Harman D. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 1956;11:298-300.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Article

Original Article

J Cosmet Med 2018; 2(2): 85-90

Published online December 31, 2018 https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2018.2.2.85

Copyright © Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery.

Association between metabolic syndrome and blepharoptosis in the Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010?2012

Changhyun Koh, MD1, Geunyeong Kim, MD1, Kyungdo Han, MS2, Juwan Park, MD, PhD1

1Department of Ophthalmology, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Rep. of Korea, 2Department of Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to:Juwan Park, E-mail: parkjw@catholic.ac.kr, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5997-8746

Received: August 30, 2018; Revised: November 28, 2018; Accepted: December 7, 2018

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder featuring chronic inflammation characterized by abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recent studies have documented that MetS is associated with various diseases, including ocular disorders.
Objective: This cross-sectional study is based on data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We examined the association between MetS and its components with blepharoptosis in Korean adults aged 19 years or older.
Methods: MetS was defined using the criteria proposed by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute together with the International Diabetes Federation in 2009. Blepharoptosis was defined as the marginal reflex distance 1 of <2 mm.
Results: The prevalence of blepharoptosis was 11.5%. As the number of MetS components increased, the prevalence of blepharoptosis also increased. After being controlled for various confounders, MetS was significantly associated with blepharoptosis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.316; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.133-1.529). In addition, blepharoptosis was associated with increased waist circumference, hypertension, and elevated triglyceride (adjusted OR, 95% CI; 1.281 [1.047-1.567], 1.165 [1.014-1.339], and 1.174 [1.013-1.36], respectively).
Conclusion: Consequently, MetS and its components were associated with blepharoptosis in Korean adults. Screening for blepharoptosis is warranted for patients with MetS.

Keywords: blepharoptosis, metabolic syndome

References

  1. Finsterer J. Ptosis: causes, presentation, and management. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2003;27:193-204.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Clauser L, Tieghi R, Gali? M. Palpebral ptosis: clinical classification, differential diagnosis, and surgical guidelines: an overview. J Craniofac Surg 2006;17:246-54.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Beard C. A new classification of blepharoptosis. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1989;29:214-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. de Figueiredo AR. Blepharoptosis. Semin Ophthalmol 2010;25:39-51.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Bosco D, Costa R, Plastino M, Branca D, Cotronei P, Sperl? T, et al. Glucose metabolism in the idiopathic blepharoptosis: utility of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and of the insulin resistance index. J Neurol Sci 2009;284:24-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Moon SS, Lee YS. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of blepharoptosis in patients with diabetes in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 20092010. Endocrine 2015;48:504-10.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Chen WL, Wang CC, Wu LW, Kao TW, Chan JY, Chen YJ, et al. Relationship between lung function and metabolic syndrome. PLoS One 2014;9:e108989.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  8. Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al.; International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; Hational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; International Association for the Study of Obesity. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120:1640-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Sumner CJ, Sheth S, Griffin JW, Cornblath DR, Polydefkis M. The spectrum of neuropathy in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Neurology 2003;60:108-11.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Gordon Smith A, Robinson Singleton J. Idiopathic neuropathy, prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome. J Neurol Sci 2006;242:9-14.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Smith AG, Singleton JR. Impaired glucose tolerance and neuropathy. Neurologist 2008;14:23-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Paik JS, Jung SK, Han KD, Kim SD, Park YM, Yang SW. Obesity as a potential risk factor for blepharoptosis: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. PLoS One 2015;10:e0131427.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Yoon KC, Mun GH, Kim SD, Kim SH, Kim CY, Park KH, et al. Prevalence of eye diseases in South Korea: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20082009. Korean J Ophthalmol 2011;25:421-33.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Shirado M. Dyslipidaemia and age-related involutional blepharoptosis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2012;65:e146-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Moon SS. Association of lead, mercury and cadmium with diabetes in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. Diabet Med 2013;30:e143-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Lee J, Lee S, Jang S, Ryu OH. Age-related changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis according to gender and skeletal site:the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2013;28:180-91.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Small RG, Sabates NR, Burrows D. The measurement and definition of ptosis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 1989;5:171-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Iliff JW, Pacheco EM. Ptosis surgery. In: Duane TD, Tasman W, Jaeger EA, editors. Duane’s clinical ophthalmology on CDROM. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins;2001. p. 1-18.
  19. Black E, Nesi FA, Calvano CJ, Gladstone GJ, Levine MR. Smith and Nesi’s ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. 3rd ed. New York: Springer; 2012.
    CrossRef
  20. Bonomini F, Rodella LF, Rezzani R. Metabolic syndrome, aging and involvement of oxidative stress. Aging Dis 2015;6:10920.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Harman D. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 1956;11:298-300.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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