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J Cosmet Med 2017; 1(2): 80-84

Published online December 31, 2017

https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2017.1.2.80

Facial feminization procedures: the western approaches to the forehead

Han LT Hoang, MD

Institute of Cosmetic and Reconstructive Surgery, California, USA

Correspondence to :
Han LT Hoang, Institute of Cosmetic and Reconstructive Surgery, 11190 Warner Ave, Suite 400 Fountain Valley, CA 92708, USA
Tel: 1-202-361-9983, Fax: 1-714-444-2668, E-mail: hanhoang@gmail.com

Received: August 21, 2017; Revised: November 21, 2017; Accepted: November 21, 2017

© Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Throughout the history, cross-dressing has been a practice that was well-accepted. However, gender dysphoria has only been recently approved by society. Facial feminization surgery (FFS) refers to a variety of surgical procedures aiming to transform the features of a male face to that of a female face. Several studies have illustrated that the upper third of the face plays the most importance role in determining gender. In this paper, the Western approaches to forehead feminization are discussed.
Level of Evidence: Level V

Keywords: facial feminization, forehead contouring, forehead reduction

  1. Ousterhout DK. Feminization of the forehead: contour changing to improve female aesthetics. Plast Reconstr Surg 1987;79:701-13.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Ousterhout DK, Zlotolow IM. Aesthetic improvement of the forehead utilizing methylmethacrylate onlay implants. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1990;14:281-5.
    CrossRef
  3. Ousterhout DK. Dr. Paul Tessier and facial skeletal masculinization. Ann Plast Surg 2011;67:S10-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Spiegel JH. Facial determinants of female gender and feminizing forehead cranioplasty. Laryngoscope 2011;121:250-61.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Sadr J, Jarudi I, Sinha P. The role of eyebrows in face recognition. Perception 2003;32:285-93.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Ousterhout DK. Aesthetic contouring of the bony forehead. In: Terino EO, Flowers RS, editors. The art of alloplastic facial contouring. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2000. p. 67-76.
  7. Altman K. Facial feminization surgery: current state of the art. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;41:885-94.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Capit?n L, Simon D, Kaye K, Tenorio T. Facial feminization surgery: the forehead. Surgical techniques and analysis of results. Plast Reconstr Surg 2014;134:609-19.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Komuro Y, Nishida M, Imazawa T, Koga Y, Yanai A. Combined frontal bone reshaping and forehead lift for frontal sinus hypertrophy. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1999;23:361-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Flowers RS, Ceydeli A. The open coronal approach to forehead rejuvenation. Clin Plast Surg 2008;35:331-51.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Nahai FR. The varied options in brow lifting. Clin Plast Surg 2013;40:101-4.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Ramirez AL, Ende KH, Kabaker SS. Correction of the high female hairline. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2009;11:84-90.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Marten TJ. Hairline lowering during foreheadplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 1999;103:224-36.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Spiegel JH. Challenges in care of the transgender patient seeking facial feminization surgery. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2008;16:233-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Koh CW. Characteristics of cosmetic medical tourism in Korea. J Cosmet Med 2017;1:25-9.
    CrossRef

Article

Review Article

J Cosmet Med 2017; 1(2): 80-84

Published online December 31, 2017 https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2017.1.2.80

Copyright © Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery.

Facial feminization procedures: the western approaches to the forehead

Han LT Hoang, MD

Institute of Cosmetic and Reconstructive Surgery, California, USA

Correspondence to:Han LT Hoang, Institute of Cosmetic and Reconstructive Surgery, 11190 Warner Ave, Suite 400 Fountain Valley, CA 92708, USA
Tel: 1-202-361-9983, Fax: 1-714-444-2668, E-mail: hanhoang@gmail.com

Received: August 21, 2017; Revised: November 21, 2017; Accepted: November 21, 2017

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Throughout the history, cross-dressing has been a practice that was well-accepted. However, gender dysphoria has only been recently approved by society. Facial feminization surgery (FFS) refers to a variety of surgical procedures aiming to transform the features of a male face to that of a female face. Several studies have illustrated that the upper third of the face plays the most importance role in determining gender. In this paper, the Western approaches to forehead feminization are discussed.
Level of Evidence: Level V

Keywords: facial feminization, forehead contouring, forehead reduction

References

  1. Ousterhout DK. Feminization of the forehead: contour changing to improve female aesthetics. Plast Reconstr Surg 1987;79:701-13.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Ousterhout DK, Zlotolow IM. Aesthetic improvement of the forehead utilizing methylmethacrylate onlay implants. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1990;14:281-5.
    CrossRef
  3. Ousterhout DK. Dr. Paul Tessier and facial skeletal masculinization. Ann Plast Surg 2011;67:S10-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Spiegel JH. Facial determinants of female gender and feminizing forehead cranioplasty. Laryngoscope 2011;121:250-61.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Sadr J, Jarudi I, Sinha P. The role of eyebrows in face recognition. Perception 2003;32:285-93.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Ousterhout DK. Aesthetic contouring of the bony forehead. In: Terino EO, Flowers RS, editors. The art of alloplastic facial contouring. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2000. p. 67-76.
  7. Altman K. Facial feminization surgery: current state of the art. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;41:885-94.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Capit?n L, Simon D, Kaye K, Tenorio T. Facial feminization surgery: the forehead. Surgical techniques and analysis of results. Plast Reconstr Surg 2014;134:609-19.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Komuro Y, Nishida M, Imazawa T, Koga Y, Yanai A. Combined frontal bone reshaping and forehead lift for frontal sinus hypertrophy. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1999;23:361-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Flowers RS, Ceydeli A. The open coronal approach to forehead rejuvenation. Clin Plast Surg 2008;35:331-51.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Nahai FR. The varied options in brow lifting. Clin Plast Surg 2013;40:101-4.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Ramirez AL, Ende KH, Kabaker SS. Correction of the high female hairline. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2009;11:84-90.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Marten TJ. Hairline lowering during foreheadplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg 1999;103:224-36.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Spiegel JH. Challenges in care of the transgender patient seeking facial feminization surgery. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2008;16:233-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Koh CW. Characteristics of cosmetic medical tourism in Korea. J Cosmet Med 2017;1:25-9.
    CrossRef

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