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J Cosmet Med 2023; 7(1): 19-24

Published online June 30, 2023

https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2023.7.1.19

A study on the general characteristics of women regarding makeup and the cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age

Insun Han , PhD

Department of Beauty Design, Busan Health University, Busan, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to :
Insun Han
E-mail: maquillage81@naver.com

Received: May 30, 2023; Revised: June 12, 2023; Accepted: June 13, 2023

© Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery & Medicine

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background: As interest in the appearance of modern women is increasing, the influence of makeup and the demand for cosmetics, a way to express beauty to one’s fullest, is growing. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the general characteristics and tendencies of women regarding makeup and cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age.
Objective: This study aims to identify general characteristics and preferences of consumers in terms of makeup and provide basic data on the general characteristics of women’s age and purchasing behavior of cosmetics.
Methods: This study collected data through a survey of 219 women living in Busan and analyzed data using SPSS WIN 21.0.
Results: According to statistical analysis of the data, factors including interest in makeup, everyday makeup, the purpose of makeup, the most concerned area, information on makeup technique, professional training experience, and cleaning products had a positive (+) effect in terms of women’s general characteristics and tendencies for makeup, while shopping trend, shopping location, the reason for selection, considerations for purchasing, used brands, improvements for domestic products had a positive (+) effect in terms of cosmetics purchasing behavior.
Conclusion: Based on the high significance of women’s characteristics and tendencies regarding makeup and purchasing behavior according to age, the prospects for the development of various cosmetics and the increase of consumers’ positive purchase intentions are promising.

Keywords: cosmetics, makeup characteristics, purchasing behavior

In the past, the purpose of makeup was limited to the pursuit of universal beauty that supplemented one’s flaws and emphasized strengths. However, with the spread of the smartphone, high-speed internet, and social networks, modern people share their environment and appearance in real-time through the public media. In addition, various information on beauty is provided on social network services (SNS), and such social trends have increased modern people’s interest in appearance [1]. The perception that a beautiful and attractive appearance is a prerequisite for individual satisfaction, interpersonal relationships, and success in social life has become a social norm [2]. Walking in step with the growing beauty industry, the cosmetics industry should identify consumers’ needs and study and analyze their user group [3].

Preceding studies related to makeup have been focused on the psychological approach to makeup, marketing strategies, and the purchasing behavior of makeup products [4-9], which are most closely related to this study, have partially studied makeup tendencies and behavior, but they were conducted before the implementation of the National Qualification Test for Customized Cosmetic Preparation Managers. Moreover, research on makeup according to age and cosmetic purchasing behavior is still minimal.

Accordingly, this study aims to provide basic data on the establishment of marketing strategies that can quickly respond to the current economic recession and rapid changes in modern society by identifying the general characteristics and tendencies of women regarding makeup and cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age.

For this study, a survey was conducted on women living in Busan using a mobile questionnaire (Naver Form) from April 20 to May 4, 2023, and 219 copies of the 223 collected questionnaires (excluding 4 undependable responses) were used for the final analysis data. To conduct this study, a questionnaire was constructed by referring to preceding studies. Five questions for the general characteristics and 13 questions for the general characteristics regarding makeup were reconstructed to fit this study by referring to Kim’s study [8], while 11 questions for purchasing behavior consisted of Yoo’s study [10]. The informed consent was waived.

All empirical analysis of this study was verified at the significance level of 5%, and statistical processing was analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). First, a frequency analysis was conducted to identify the demographic characteristics of women. A chi-square test was conducted to identify the general characteristics and tendencies for makeup and cosmetics purchasing behavior.

Demographic characteristics of respondents

A total of 219 people were surveyed. In terms of age, 46.1% were in their 20s, 16.4% in their 30s, 21.5% in their 40s, 12.8% in their 50s, and 3.2% in their 60s and above. In terms of career, 39.7% were in students, 10.5% were in sales and services, 11.4% were office workers, 14.2% were self-employed, and 10.5% were unemployed. In terms of marital status, 46.6% were married and 53.4% were single. In terms of household monthly income, 23.3% made less than 2 million won, 14.2% made between 2 to 3 million won, 22.4% made between 3 to 4 million won, 10.5% made between 4 to 5 million won, and 29.7% made over 5 million won. In terms of the highest level of education, 12.8% had a high school diploma or lower, 72.1% were enrolled in or had graduated from university, and 15.1% were enrolled in or had graduated from graduate school, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 . Demographic characteristics

CategoryNumber%
Age
20s10146.1
30s3616.4
40s4721.5
50s2812.8
≥60s73.2
Career
Student8739.7
Sales and services2310.5
Office worker2511.4
Teacher/instructor3114.2
Self-employed3013.7
Unemployed2310.5
Marital status
Married10246.6
Single11753.4
Household monthly income (won)
Less than 2 million5123.3
2 million–less than 3 million3114.2
3 million–less than 4 million4922.4
4 million–less than 5 million2310.5
Over 5 million won6529.7
Highest level of education
Graduated high school or lower2812.8
Enrolled in/graduated from university15872.1
Enrolled in/graduated graduate school3315.1
Total219100


General characteristics and tendencies for makeup according to age

A chi-square test was conducted to identify the cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age. As a result, all three age groups (20s and under, 30s and 40s, 50s and above) responded they have an interest in makeup at the rate of 85.1% (86 people), 55.4% (46 people), and 68.6% (24 people), respectively. There was a difference (χ2=21.876, p<0.001) in the age groups as those in their 20s and under showed higher interest compared to that of other age groups. For everyday makeup, the majority of those in their 30s and 40s (35 people, 42.2%) responded “skin makeup,” while the majority of those in their 20s and under (73 people, 72.3%) and 50s and above (15 people, 42.9%) responded “overall makeup,” showing a difference (χ2=47.265, p<0.001) between age groups. For makeup, “self-satisfaction” had the highest response with 59 people (58.4%) in their 20s and under, while “skin protection” had the highest response with 49 people (59.0%) and 30 people (85.7%) in their 30s and 40s group and the 50s and above group, respectively, showing a difference (χ2=74.252, p<0.001) between age groups. In terms of the most concerned area, “eye makeup” had the highest response with 51 people (50.5%) in the 20s and under group, while “skin makeup” had the highest response with 58 people (69.9%) and 22 people (62.9%) the 30s and 40s group and the 50s and above group, respectively, showing a difference (χ2=8.051, p<0.05) between age groups. In addition, for information on makeup techniques, “other media” had the highest response with 25 people (71.4%) in the 50s and above group, while “Internet” had the highest response with 87 people (86.1%) and 56 people (67.5%) in the 20s and under group and the 30s and 40s group, respectively, showing a difference (χ2=41.276, p<0.001) between age groups. In terms of professional training experience, 76 people (75.2%) in their 20s and under answered “yes,” while 57 people (68.7%) in their 30s and 40s and 19 people (54.3%) in their 50s and above responded “no,” showing a difference (χ2=36.488, p<0.001) in age groups. Finally, for cleaning products, “remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser” had the highest response for all three age groups; however, a difference (χ2=12.430, p<0.05) existed as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser” (66 people, 65.3%) compared to that of the 30s and 40s group (38 people, 45.8%) and the 50s and above group (16 people, 45.7%), as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 . General characteristics and tendencies for makeup according to age

AgeTotalχ2 (p)
<20s30s and 40s≥50s
Interest in makeup21.876*** (<0.001)
Yes86 (85.1)46 (55.4)24 (68.6)156 (71.2)
Somewhat9 (8.9)30 (36.1)9 (25.7)48 (21.9)
No6 (5.9)7 (8.4)2 (5.7)15 (6.8)
Everyday makeup47.265*** (<0.001)
Skin makeup6 (5.9)35 (42.2)10 (28.6)51 (23.3)
Partial makeup22 (21.8)26 (31.3)10 (28.6)58 (26.5)
Full makeup73 (72.3)22 (26.5)15 (42.9)110 (50.2)
Purpose of makeup74.252*** (<0.001)
Cover flaws29 (28.7)15 (18.1)3 (8.6)47 (21.5)
Protect skin13 (12.9)49 (59.0)30 (85.7)92 (42.0)
Self-satisfaction59 (58.4)19 (22.9)2 (5.7)80 (36.5)
Most concerned area8.051* (0.018)
Skin makeup50 (49.5)58 (69.9)22 (62.9)130 (59.4)
Eye makeup51 (50.5)25 (30.1)13 (37.1)89 (40.6)
Information on a makeup technique41.276*** (<0.001)
Internet87 (86.1)56 (67.5)10 (28.6)153 (69.9)
Other media14 (13.9)27 (32.5)25 (71.4)66 (30.1)
Most important area3.556 (0.469)
Technique35 (34.7)21 (25.3)7 (20.0)63 (28.8)
Skin condition53 (52.5)49 (59.0)22 (62.9)124 (56.6)
Tools13 (12.9)13 (15.7)6 (17.1)32 (14.6)
Professional training experience36.488*** (<0.001)
Yes76 (75.2)26 (31.3)16 (45.7)118 (53.9)
No25 (24.8)57 (68.7)19 (54.3)101 (46.1)
Most important step9.538 (0.146)
Cleansing31 (30.7)32 (38.6)18 (51.4)81 (37.0)
Skincare37 (36.6)21 (25.3)11 (31.4)69 (31.5)
Skin expression20 (19.8)22 (26.5)5 (14.3)47 (21.5)
Makeup13 (12.9)8 (9.6)1 (2.9)22 (10.0)
Cleaning product12.430* (0.014)
Soap+cleanser6 (5.9)14 (16.9)8 (22.9)28 (12.8)
Cleansing+soap+cleanser29 (28.7)31 (37.3)11 (31.4)71 (32.4)
Remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser66 (65.3)38 (45.8)16 (45.7)120 (54.8)
Total101 (100)83 (100)35 (100)219 (100)

Values are presented as n (%).

*p<0.05, ***p<0.001.



A chi-square test was conducted to identify cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age. As a result, for shopping trends, “generally same product” had the highest response with 59 people (58.4%), 61 people (73.5%), and 27 people (77.1%) for age groups 20s and under, 30s and 40s, and 50s and above respectively. However, there was a difference (χ2=6.589, p<0.05) between age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “generally same product” than the other age groups. For shopping location, “specialty store” had the highest response (70 people, 69.3%) in the 20s and under group, while “Internet” (35 people, 42.2%) and “retail store” (17 people, 48.6%) had the highest responses in the 30s and 40s group and the 50s and above group, respectively, showing a difference (χ2=56.381, p<0.001) between age groups. For the reason for selecting the shopping location, “speed & convenience” had the highest response with 60 people (59.4%) in the 20s and under group and 50 people (60.2%) in the 30s and 40s group, while “trust & service” had the highest response with 14 people (40.0%) in the 50s and above group, showing a difference (χ2=21.359, p<0.001) in age groups. In terms of considerations when purchasing, “skin type” had the highest response with 31 people (30.7%) in the 20s and under group and 34 people (41.0%) in the 30s and 40s group, while “functionality” had the highest response with 13 people (37.1%) in the 50s and above group, showing a difference (χ2=37.185, p<0.001) in age groups. For used brands, “both” had the highest response for all age groups; however, there was a difference (χ2=23.153, p<0.001) in age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “both” (65 people, 64.4%) compared to that of the 30s and 40s group (34 people, 41.0%), and the 50s and above group (14 people, 40.0%). Finally, for improvements in domestic products, “quality” had the highest response for all three age groups (20s and under: 37 people, 36.6%; 30s and 40s: 33 people, 39.8%; 50s and above: 17 people, 48.6%). However, there was a difference (χ2=35.193, p<0.05) in age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “variety of colors” compared to the other groups, as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 . Cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age

AgeTotalχ2 (p)
<20s30s and 40s≥50s
Shopping trend6.589* (0.037)
Usually same product59 (58.4)61 (73.5)27 (77.1)147 (67.1)
Usually different product42 (41.6)22 (26.5)8 (22.9)72 (32.9)
Shopping location56.381*** (<0.001)
Specialty store70 (69.3)19 (22.9)7 (20.0)96 (43.8)
Internet23 (22.8)35 (42.2)11 (31.4)69 (31.5)
Retail store8 (7.9)29 (34.9)17 (48.6)54 (24.7)
Reason for selecting shopping location21.359*** (<0.001)
Speed & convenience60 (59.4)50 (60.2)14 (40.0)124 (56.6)
Variety32 (31.7)13 (15.7)7 (20.0)52 (23.7)
Trust & service9 (8.9)20 (24.1)14 (40.0)43 (19.6)
When purchasing4.340 (0.362)
Use all50 (49.5)47 (56.6)21 (60.0)118 (53.9)
For a change28 (27.7)18 (21.7)4 (11.4)50 (22.8)
Trend & season23 (22.8)18 (21.7)10 (28.6)51 (23.3)
Influence on purchase7.689 (0.104)
Personal experience32 (31.7)28 (33.7)16 (45.7)76 (34.7)
Recommendation of others51 (50.5)31 (37.3)10 (28.6)92 (42.0)
Internet reviews18 (17.8)24 (28.9)9 (25.7)51 (23.3)
Considerations when purchasing37.185*** (<0.001)
Skin type31 (30.7)34 (41.0)7 (20.0)72 (32.9)
Quality27 (26.7)16 (19.3)8 (22.9)51 (23.3)
Color26 (25.7)6 (7.2)3 (8.6)35 (16.0)
Functionality4 (4.0)14 (16.9)13 (37.1)31 (14.2)
Price & Brand13 (12.9)13 (15.7)4 (11.4)30 (13.7)
Used brands23.153*** (<0.001)
Domestic brand33 (32.7)29 (34.9)16 (45.7)78 (35.6)
Imported brand3 (3.0)20 (24.1)5 (14.3)28 (12.8)
Both65 (64.4)34 (41.0)14 (40.0)113 (51.6)
Improvements in domestic products35.193*** (<0.001)
Skin compatibility13 (12.9)20 (24.1)10 (28.6)43 (19.6)
Quality37 (36.6)33 (39.8)17 (48.6)87 (39.7)
Brand reliability12 (11.9)21 (25.3)7 (20.0)40 (18.3)
Variety of colors29 (28.7)9 (10.8)1 (2.9)39 (17.8)
Container design10 (9.9)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)10 (4.6)
Total101 (100.0)83 (100.0)35 (100.0)219 (100.0)

Values are presented as n (%).

*p<0.05, ***p<0.001.


As a result of analyzing the general characteristics and tendencies for makeup according to age, those in their 20s and under showed more interest in makeup compared to the other groups. In terms of everyday makeup, people in their 30s and 40s focused on skin makeup, while those in their 20s and under and 50s and above focused on full makeup. The 20s and under group used makeup for self-satisfaction, while the other groups used makeup to protect their skin. However, in the paper [8] on female college students in their 20s, the primary purpose of makeup was to cover one’s flaws. In terms of the most concerned area, those in their 20s responded “eye makeup,” while the other groups responded, “skin makeup.” For information on makeup techniques, those in their 50s used “other media” the most, while the other groups used “Internet” the most. A high percentage of people in their 20s and under had professional training experience while the other age groups did not, showing a difference in the age groups. Finally, for cleaning products, there was a difference in the age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser” compared to the other groups.

Second, according to an analysis of cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age, all age groups responded that they generally purchase the same product, but those in their 30s and 40s and 50s and above showed a higher response rate for “generally same product” than those in their 20s and under. For shopping locations, “specialty store,” “Internet,” and “retail store” had the highest response for each age group, respectively. In terms of reason for selecting the locations, there was a difference in the age groups as those in their 20s and under and those in their 30s and 40s responded “speed & convenience,” while those in their 50s and above responded “functionality.” The 20s and under group used both domestic and imported products at a higher rate than the other age groups. Finally, for improvement in domestic products, “quality” had the highest response for all age groups. However, there was a difference in the age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “variety of colors” compared to the other groups.

In conclusion, first, younger individuals in their 20s showed a higher interest in makeup and obtained information about makeup techniques through the internet. They pursued overall makeup for self-satisfaction and had experience receiving professional education. They also used cleansing products that differed significantly from other age groups.

Second, an analysis of makeup product purchasing behavior based on age revealed that individuals in their 30s to 40s and those aged 50 and above had a higher tendency to purchase the same products compared to those under 20. Those in their 20s considered specialty stores due to the convenience of using specific types of skincare products. Individuals in their 30s to 40s preferred online purchases, while those aged 50 and above prioritized functionality and trusted services, leading them to buy products from supermarkets. Both domestic and imported products were used by all age groups, but individuals under 20 had a higher tendency to use both. When it came to improvements in domestic products, respondents mentioned the need for a greater variety of colors, indicating a noticeable difference.

  1. Kim MJ. Effect of appearance satisfaction of women in their 20s and 30s on psychological well-being and happiness [dissertation]. Seoul: Konkuk University; 2015.
  2. Kim IO. The effect of female body image and beauty interest on beauty management behavior [dissertation]. Seoul: Hansung University; 2019.
  3. Choi MJ. The assessment of purchasing pattern and consuming behavior of cosmetics among women in their 20s and 30s [dissertation]. Seoul: Chung-Ang University; 2011.
  4. Jun Y. Study on color cosmetics purchasing behavior of women in 20s-40s and usage [dissertation]. Seoul: Konkuk University; 2015.
  5. Lee Y. Study on purchase behavior and use of make-up cosmetics: among women in their 20s and 30s [dissertation]. Seoul: Sookmyung Women's University; 2012.
  6. Ha JY. Use of cosmetics and purchasing behavior among high school girls - centering on Daegu and Gyeongsangbukdo [dissertation]. Seoul: Sookmyung Women's University; 2012.
  7. Lee MJ. The effect of Korean women life style on cosmetics purchasing behavior [dissertation]. Gwangju: Chonnam National University; 2002.
  8. Kim E. A study on the purchase behavior and use of makeup cosmetics among female college students [dissertation]. Seoul: Sookmyung Women's University; 2013.
  9. Lee G. A study of the purchasing form and condition of consumption according to the level of prior knowledge of cosmetics - on the perspective of the men in the Changwon city [dissertation]. Changwon: Changwon National University; 2013.
  10. Yoo C. Purchase and use of cosmetics by female college students majoring in beauty [dissertation]. Anyang: Sungkyul University; 2015.

Article

Original Article

J Cosmet Med 2023; 7(1): 19-24

Published online June 30, 2023 https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2023.7.1.19

Copyright © Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery & Medicine.

A study on the general characteristics of women regarding makeup and the cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age

Insun Han , PhD

Department of Beauty Design, Busan Health University, Busan, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to:Insun Han
E-mail: maquillage81@naver.com

Received: May 30, 2023; Revised: June 12, 2023; Accepted: June 13, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background: As interest in the appearance of modern women is increasing, the influence of makeup and the demand for cosmetics, a way to express beauty to one’s fullest, is growing. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the general characteristics and tendencies of women regarding makeup and cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age.
Objective: This study aims to identify general characteristics and preferences of consumers in terms of makeup and provide basic data on the general characteristics of women’s age and purchasing behavior of cosmetics.
Methods: This study collected data through a survey of 219 women living in Busan and analyzed data using SPSS WIN 21.0.
Results: According to statistical analysis of the data, factors including interest in makeup, everyday makeup, the purpose of makeup, the most concerned area, information on makeup technique, professional training experience, and cleaning products had a positive (+) effect in terms of women’s general characteristics and tendencies for makeup, while shopping trend, shopping location, the reason for selection, considerations for purchasing, used brands, improvements for domestic products had a positive (+) effect in terms of cosmetics purchasing behavior.
Conclusion: Based on the high significance of women’s characteristics and tendencies regarding makeup and purchasing behavior according to age, the prospects for the development of various cosmetics and the increase of consumers’ positive purchase intentions are promising.

Keywords: cosmetics, makeup characteristics, purchasing behavior

Introduction

In the past, the purpose of makeup was limited to the pursuit of universal beauty that supplemented one’s flaws and emphasized strengths. However, with the spread of the smartphone, high-speed internet, and social networks, modern people share their environment and appearance in real-time through the public media. In addition, various information on beauty is provided on social network services (SNS), and such social trends have increased modern people’s interest in appearance [1]. The perception that a beautiful and attractive appearance is a prerequisite for individual satisfaction, interpersonal relationships, and success in social life has become a social norm [2]. Walking in step with the growing beauty industry, the cosmetics industry should identify consumers’ needs and study and analyze their user group [3].

Preceding studies related to makeup have been focused on the psychological approach to makeup, marketing strategies, and the purchasing behavior of makeup products [4-9], which are most closely related to this study, have partially studied makeup tendencies and behavior, but they were conducted before the implementation of the National Qualification Test for Customized Cosmetic Preparation Managers. Moreover, research on makeup according to age and cosmetic purchasing behavior is still minimal.

Accordingly, this study aims to provide basic data on the establishment of marketing strategies that can quickly respond to the current economic recession and rapid changes in modern society by identifying the general characteristics and tendencies of women regarding makeup and cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age.

Materials and methods

For this study, a survey was conducted on women living in Busan using a mobile questionnaire (Naver Form) from April 20 to May 4, 2023, and 219 copies of the 223 collected questionnaires (excluding 4 undependable responses) were used for the final analysis data. To conduct this study, a questionnaire was constructed by referring to preceding studies. Five questions for the general characteristics and 13 questions for the general characteristics regarding makeup were reconstructed to fit this study by referring to Kim’s study [8], while 11 questions for purchasing behavior consisted of Yoo’s study [10]. The informed consent was waived.

All empirical analysis of this study was verified at the significance level of 5%, and statistical processing was analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). First, a frequency analysis was conducted to identify the demographic characteristics of women. A chi-square test was conducted to identify the general characteristics and tendencies for makeup and cosmetics purchasing behavior.

Results

Demographic characteristics of respondents

A total of 219 people were surveyed. In terms of age, 46.1% were in their 20s, 16.4% in their 30s, 21.5% in their 40s, 12.8% in their 50s, and 3.2% in their 60s and above. In terms of career, 39.7% were in students, 10.5% were in sales and services, 11.4% were office workers, 14.2% were self-employed, and 10.5% were unemployed. In terms of marital status, 46.6% were married and 53.4% were single. In terms of household monthly income, 23.3% made less than 2 million won, 14.2% made between 2 to 3 million won, 22.4% made between 3 to 4 million won, 10.5% made between 4 to 5 million won, and 29.7% made over 5 million won. In terms of the highest level of education, 12.8% had a high school diploma or lower, 72.1% were enrolled in or had graduated from university, and 15.1% were enrolled in or had graduated from graduate school, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 . Demographic characteristics.

CategoryNumber%
Age
20s10146.1
30s3616.4
40s4721.5
50s2812.8
≥60s73.2
Career
Student8739.7
Sales and services2310.5
Office worker2511.4
Teacher/instructor3114.2
Self-employed3013.7
Unemployed2310.5
Marital status
Married10246.6
Single11753.4
Household monthly income (won)
Less than 2 million5123.3
2 million–less than 3 million3114.2
3 million–less than 4 million4922.4
4 million–less than 5 million2310.5
Over 5 million won6529.7
Highest level of education
Graduated high school or lower2812.8
Enrolled in/graduated from university15872.1
Enrolled in/graduated graduate school3315.1
Total219100


General characteristics and tendencies for makeup according to age

A chi-square test was conducted to identify the cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age. As a result, all three age groups (20s and under, 30s and 40s, 50s and above) responded they have an interest in makeup at the rate of 85.1% (86 people), 55.4% (46 people), and 68.6% (24 people), respectively. There was a difference (χ2=21.876, p<0.001) in the age groups as those in their 20s and under showed higher interest compared to that of other age groups. For everyday makeup, the majority of those in their 30s and 40s (35 people, 42.2%) responded “skin makeup,” while the majority of those in their 20s and under (73 people, 72.3%) and 50s and above (15 people, 42.9%) responded “overall makeup,” showing a difference (χ2=47.265, p<0.001) between age groups. For makeup, “self-satisfaction” had the highest response with 59 people (58.4%) in their 20s and under, while “skin protection” had the highest response with 49 people (59.0%) and 30 people (85.7%) in their 30s and 40s group and the 50s and above group, respectively, showing a difference (χ2=74.252, p<0.001) between age groups. In terms of the most concerned area, “eye makeup” had the highest response with 51 people (50.5%) in the 20s and under group, while “skin makeup” had the highest response with 58 people (69.9%) and 22 people (62.9%) the 30s and 40s group and the 50s and above group, respectively, showing a difference (χ2=8.051, p<0.05) between age groups. In addition, for information on makeup techniques, “other media” had the highest response with 25 people (71.4%) in the 50s and above group, while “Internet” had the highest response with 87 people (86.1%) and 56 people (67.5%) in the 20s and under group and the 30s and 40s group, respectively, showing a difference (χ2=41.276, p<0.001) between age groups. In terms of professional training experience, 76 people (75.2%) in their 20s and under answered “yes,” while 57 people (68.7%) in their 30s and 40s and 19 people (54.3%) in their 50s and above responded “no,” showing a difference (χ2=36.488, p<0.001) in age groups. Finally, for cleaning products, “remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser” had the highest response for all three age groups; however, a difference (χ2=12.430, p<0.05) existed as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser” (66 people, 65.3%) compared to that of the 30s and 40s group (38 people, 45.8%) and the 50s and above group (16 people, 45.7%), as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 . General characteristics and tendencies for makeup according to age.

AgeTotalχ2 (p)
<20s30s and 40s≥50s
Interest in makeup21.876*** (<0.001)
Yes86 (85.1)46 (55.4)24 (68.6)156 (71.2)
Somewhat9 (8.9)30 (36.1)9 (25.7)48 (21.9)
No6 (5.9)7 (8.4)2 (5.7)15 (6.8)
Everyday makeup47.265*** (<0.001)
Skin makeup6 (5.9)35 (42.2)10 (28.6)51 (23.3)
Partial makeup22 (21.8)26 (31.3)10 (28.6)58 (26.5)
Full makeup73 (72.3)22 (26.5)15 (42.9)110 (50.2)
Purpose of makeup74.252*** (<0.001)
Cover flaws29 (28.7)15 (18.1)3 (8.6)47 (21.5)
Protect skin13 (12.9)49 (59.0)30 (85.7)92 (42.0)
Self-satisfaction59 (58.4)19 (22.9)2 (5.7)80 (36.5)
Most concerned area8.051* (0.018)
Skin makeup50 (49.5)58 (69.9)22 (62.9)130 (59.4)
Eye makeup51 (50.5)25 (30.1)13 (37.1)89 (40.6)
Information on a makeup technique41.276*** (<0.001)
Internet87 (86.1)56 (67.5)10 (28.6)153 (69.9)
Other media14 (13.9)27 (32.5)25 (71.4)66 (30.1)
Most important area3.556 (0.469)
Technique35 (34.7)21 (25.3)7 (20.0)63 (28.8)
Skin condition53 (52.5)49 (59.0)22 (62.9)124 (56.6)
Tools13 (12.9)13 (15.7)6 (17.1)32 (14.6)
Professional training experience36.488*** (<0.001)
Yes76 (75.2)26 (31.3)16 (45.7)118 (53.9)
No25 (24.8)57 (68.7)19 (54.3)101 (46.1)
Most important step9.538 (0.146)
Cleansing31 (30.7)32 (38.6)18 (51.4)81 (37.0)
Skincare37 (36.6)21 (25.3)11 (31.4)69 (31.5)
Skin expression20 (19.8)22 (26.5)5 (14.3)47 (21.5)
Makeup13 (12.9)8 (9.6)1 (2.9)22 (10.0)
Cleaning product12.430* (0.014)
Soap+cleanser6 (5.9)14 (16.9)8 (22.9)28 (12.8)
Cleansing+soap+cleanser29 (28.7)31 (37.3)11 (31.4)71 (32.4)
Remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser66 (65.3)38 (45.8)16 (45.7)120 (54.8)
Total101 (100)83 (100)35 (100)219 (100)

Values are presented as n (%)..

*p<0.05, ***p<0.001..



A chi-square test was conducted to identify cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age. As a result, for shopping trends, “generally same product” had the highest response with 59 people (58.4%), 61 people (73.5%), and 27 people (77.1%) for age groups 20s and under, 30s and 40s, and 50s and above respectively. However, there was a difference (χ2=6.589, p<0.05) between age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “generally same product” than the other age groups. For shopping location, “specialty store” had the highest response (70 people, 69.3%) in the 20s and under group, while “Internet” (35 people, 42.2%) and “retail store” (17 people, 48.6%) had the highest responses in the 30s and 40s group and the 50s and above group, respectively, showing a difference (χ2=56.381, p<0.001) between age groups. For the reason for selecting the shopping location, “speed & convenience” had the highest response with 60 people (59.4%) in the 20s and under group and 50 people (60.2%) in the 30s and 40s group, while “trust & service” had the highest response with 14 people (40.0%) in the 50s and above group, showing a difference (χ2=21.359, p<0.001) in age groups. In terms of considerations when purchasing, “skin type” had the highest response with 31 people (30.7%) in the 20s and under group and 34 people (41.0%) in the 30s and 40s group, while “functionality” had the highest response with 13 people (37.1%) in the 50s and above group, showing a difference (χ2=37.185, p<0.001) in age groups. For used brands, “both” had the highest response for all age groups; however, there was a difference (χ2=23.153, p<0.001) in age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “both” (65 people, 64.4%) compared to that of the 30s and 40s group (34 people, 41.0%), and the 50s and above group (14 people, 40.0%). Finally, for improvements in domestic products, “quality” had the highest response for all three age groups (20s and under: 37 people, 36.6%; 30s and 40s: 33 people, 39.8%; 50s and above: 17 people, 48.6%). However, there was a difference (χ2=35.193, p<0.05) in age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “variety of colors” compared to the other groups, as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 . Cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age.

AgeTotalχ2 (p)
<20s30s and 40s≥50s
Shopping trend6.589* (0.037)
Usually same product59 (58.4)61 (73.5)27 (77.1)147 (67.1)
Usually different product42 (41.6)22 (26.5)8 (22.9)72 (32.9)
Shopping location56.381*** (<0.001)
Specialty store70 (69.3)19 (22.9)7 (20.0)96 (43.8)
Internet23 (22.8)35 (42.2)11 (31.4)69 (31.5)
Retail store8 (7.9)29 (34.9)17 (48.6)54 (24.7)
Reason for selecting shopping location21.359*** (<0.001)
Speed & convenience60 (59.4)50 (60.2)14 (40.0)124 (56.6)
Variety32 (31.7)13 (15.7)7 (20.0)52 (23.7)
Trust & service9 (8.9)20 (24.1)14 (40.0)43 (19.6)
When purchasing4.340 (0.362)
Use all50 (49.5)47 (56.6)21 (60.0)118 (53.9)
For a change28 (27.7)18 (21.7)4 (11.4)50 (22.8)
Trend & season23 (22.8)18 (21.7)10 (28.6)51 (23.3)
Influence on purchase7.689 (0.104)
Personal experience32 (31.7)28 (33.7)16 (45.7)76 (34.7)
Recommendation of others51 (50.5)31 (37.3)10 (28.6)92 (42.0)
Internet reviews18 (17.8)24 (28.9)9 (25.7)51 (23.3)
Considerations when purchasing37.185*** (<0.001)
Skin type31 (30.7)34 (41.0)7 (20.0)72 (32.9)
Quality27 (26.7)16 (19.3)8 (22.9)51 (23.3)
Color26 (25.7)6 (7.2)3 (8.6)35 (16.0)
Functionality4 (4.0)14 (16.9)13 (37.1)31 (14.2)
Price & Brand13 (12.9)13 (15.7)4 (11.4)30 (13.7)
Used brands23.153*** (<0.001)
Domestic brand33 (32.7)29 (34.9)16 (45.7)78 (35.6)
Imported brand3 (3.0)20 (24.1)5 (14.3)28 (12.8)
Both65 (64.4)34 (41.0)14 (40.0)113 (51.6)
Improvements in domestic products35.193*** (<0.001)
Skin compatibility13 (12.9)20 (24.1)10 (28.6)43 (19.6)
Quality37 (36.6)33 (39.8)17 (48.6)87 (39.7)
Brand reliability12 (11.9)21 (25.3)7 (20.0)40 (18.3)
Variety of colors29 (28.7)9 (10.8)1 (2.9)39 (17.8)
Container design10 (9.9)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)10 (4.6)
Total101 (100.0)83 (100.0)35 (100.0)219 (100.0)

Values are presented as n (%)..

*p<0.05, ***p<0.001..


Discussion

As a result of analyzing the general characteristics and tendencies for makeup according to age, those in their 20s and under showed more interest in makeup compared to the other groups. In terms of everyday makeup, people in their 30s and 40s focused on skin makeup, while those in their 20s and under and 50s and above focused on full makeup. The 20s and under group used makeup for self-satisfaction, while the other groups used makeup to protect their skin. However, in the paper [8] on female college students in their 20s, the primary purpose of makeup was to cover one’s flaws. In terms of the most concerned area, those in their 20s responded “eye makeup,” while the other groups responded, “skin makeup.” For information on makeup techniques, those in their 50s used “other media” the most, while the other groups used “Internet” the most. A high percentage of people in their 20s and under had professional training experience while the other age groups did not, showing a difference in the age groups. Finally, for cleaning products, there was a difference in the age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser” compared to the other groups.

Second, according to an analysis of cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age, all age groups responded that they generally purchase the same product, but those in their 30s and 40s and 50s and above showed a higher response rate for “generally same product” than those in their 20s and under. For shopping locations, “specialty store,” “Internet,” and “retail store” had the highest response for each age group, respectively. In terms of reason for selecting the locations, there was a difference in the age groups as those in their 20s and under and those in their 30s and 40s responded “speed & convenience,” while those in their 50s and above responded “functionality.” The 20s and under group used both domestic and imported products at a higher rate than the other age groups. Finally, for improvement in domestic products, “quality” had the highest response for all age groups. However, there was a difference in the age groups as the 20s and under group showed a higher response rate for “variety of colors” compared to the other groups.

In conclusion, first, younger individuals in their 20s showed a higher interest in makeup and obtained information about makeup techniques through the internet. They pursued overall makeup for self-satisfaction and had experience receiving professional education. They also used cleansing products that differed significantly from other age groups.

Second, an analysis of makeup product purchasing behavior based on age revealed that individuals in their 30s to 40s and those aged 50 and above had a higher tendency to purchase the same products compared to those under 20. Those in their 20s considered specialty stores due to the convenience of using specific types of skincare products. Individuals in their 30s to 40s preferred online purchases, while those aged 50 and above prioritized functionality and trusted services, leading them to buy products from supermarkets. Both domestic and imported products were used by all age groups, but individuals under 20 had a higher tendency to use both. When it came to improvements in domestic products, respondents mentioned the need for a greater variety of colors, indicating a noticeable difference.

Conflicts of interest

The author has nothing to disclose.

Table 1 . Demographic characteristics.

CategoryNumber%
Age
20s10146.1
30s3616.4
40s4721.5
50s2812.8
≥60s73.2
Career
Student8739.7
Sales and services2310.5
Office worker2511.4
Teacher/instructor3114.2
Self-employed3013.7
Unemployed2310.5
Marital status
Married10246.6
Single11753.4
Household monthly income (won)
Less than 2 million5123.3
2 million–less than 3 million3114.2
3 million–less than 4 million4922.4
4 million–less than 5 million2310.5
Over 5 million won6529.7
Highest level of education
Graduated high school or lower2812.8
Enrolled in/graduated from university15872.1
Enrolled in/graduated graduate school3315.1
Total219100

Table 2 . General characteristics and tendencies for makeup according to age.

AgeTotalχ2 (p)
<20s30s and 40s≥50s
Interest in makeup21.876*** (<0.001)
Yes86 (85.1)46 (55.4)24 (68.6)156 (71.2)
Somewhat9 (8.9)30 (36.1)9 (25.7)48 (21.9)
No6 (5.9)7 (8.4)2 (5.7)15 (6.8)
Everyday makeup47.265*** (<0.001)
Skin makeup6 (5.9)35 (42.2)10 (28.6)51 (23.3)
Partial makeup22 (21.8)26 (31.3)10 (28.6)58 (26.5)
Full makeup73 (72.3)22 (26.5)15 (42.9)110 (50.2)
Purpose of makeup74.252*** (<0.001)
Cover flaws29 (28.7)15 (18.1)3 (8.6)47 (21.5)
Protect skin13 (12.9)49 (59.0)30 (85.7)92 (42.0)
Self-satisfaction59 (58.4)19 (22.9)2 (5.7)80 (36.5)
Most concerned area8.051* (0.018)
Skin makeup50 (49.5)58 (69.9)22 (62.9)130 (59.4)
Eye makeup51 (50.5)25 (30.1)13 (37.1)89 (40.6)
Information on a makeup technique41.276*** (<0.001)
Internet87 (86.1)56 (67.5)10 (28.6)153 (69.9)
Other media14 (13.9)27 (32.5)25 (71.4)66 (30.1)
Most important area3.556 (0.469)
Technique35 (34.7)21 (25.3)7 (20.0)63 (28.8)
Skin condition53 (52.5)49 (59.0)22 (62.9)124 (56.6)
Tools13 (12.9)13 (15.7)6 (17.1)32 (14.6)
Professional training experience36.488*** (<0.001)
Yes76 (75.2)26 (31.3)16 (45.7)118 (53.9)
No25 (24.8)57 (68.7)19 (54.3)101 (46.1)
Most important step9.538 (0.146)
Cleansing31 (30.7)32 (38.6)18 (51.4)81 (37.0)
Skincare37 (36.6)21 (25.3)11 (31.4)69 (31.5)
Skin expression20 (19.8)22 (26.5)5 (14.3)47 (21.5)
Makeup13 (12.9)8 (9.6)1 (2.9)22 (10.0)
Cleaning product12.430* (0.014)
Soap+cleanser6 (5.9)14 (16.9)8 (22.9)28 (12.8)
Cleansing+soap+cleanser29 (28.7)31 (37.3)11 (31.4)71 (32.4)
Remover+cleansing+soap or cleanser66 (65.3)38 (45.8)16 (45.7)120 (54.8)
Total101 (100)83 (100)35 (100)219 (100)

Values are presented as n (%)..

*p<0.05, ***p<0.001..


Table 3 . Cosmetics purchasing behavior according to age.

AgeTotalχ2 (p)
<20s30s and 40s≥50s
Shopping trend6.589* (0.037)
Usually same product59 (58.4)61 (73.5)27 (77.1)147 (67.1)
Usually different product42 (41.6)22 (26.5)8 (22.9)72 (32.9)
Shopping location56.381*** (<0.001)
Specialty store70 (69.3)19 (22.9)7 (20.0)96 (43.8)
Internet23 (22.8)35 (42.2)11 (31.4)69 (31.5)
Retail store8 (7.9)29 (34.9)17 (48.6)54 (24.7)
Reason for selecting shopping location21.359*** (<0.001)
Speed & convenience60 (59.4)50 (60.2)14 (40.0)124 (56.6)
Variety32 (31.7)13 (15.7)7 (20.0)52 (23.7)
Trust & service9 (8.9)20 (24.1)14 (40.0)43 (19.6)
When purchasing4.340 (0.362)
Use all50 (49.5)47 (56.6)21 (60.0)118 (53.9)
For a change28 (27.7)18 (21.7)4 (11.4)50 (22.8)
Trend & season23 (22.8)18 (21.7)10 (28.6)51 (23.3)
Influence on purchase7.689 (0.104)
Personal experience32 (31.7)28 (33.7)16 (45.7)76 (34.7)
Recommendation of others51 (50.5)31 (37.3)10 (28.6)92 (42.0)
Internet reviews18 (17.8)24 (28.9)9 (25.7)51 (23.3)
Considerations when purchasing37.185*** (<0.001)
Skin type31 (30.7)34 (41.0)7 (20.0)72 (32.9)
Quality27 (26.7)16 (19.3)8 (22.9)51 (23.3)
Color26 (25.7)6 (7.2)3 (8.6)35 (16.0)
Functionality4 (4.0)14 (16.9)13 (37.1)31 (14.2)
Price & Brand13 (12.9)13 (15.7)4 (11.4)30 (13.7)
Used brands23.153*** (<0.001)
Domestic brand33 (32.7)29 (34.9)16 (45.7)78 (35.6)
Imported brand3 (3.0)20 (24.1)5 (14.3)28 (12.8)
Both65 (64.4)34 (41.0)14 (40.0)113 (51.6)
Improvements in domestic products35.193*** (<0.001)
Skin compatibility13 (12.9)20 (24.1)10 (28.6)43 (19.6)
Quality37 (36.6)33 (39.8)17 (48.6)87 (39.7)
Brand reliability12 (11.9)21 (25.3)7 (20.0)40 (18.3)
Variety of colors29 (28.7)9 (10.8)1 (2.9)39 (17.8)
Container design10 (9.9)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)10 (4.6)
Total101 (100.0)83 (100.0)35 (100.0)219 (100.0)

Values are presented as n (%)..

*p<0.05, ***p<0.001..


References

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