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J Cosmet Med 2021; 5(1): 24-29

Published online June 30, 2021

https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2021.5.1.24

The effect of makeup behavior and makeup perception on makeup usage level before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sun-Hyoung Kim, PhD1 , Eui-Hyoung Kim, PhD2

1Department of Beauty Science, Kwangju Women’s University, Gwangju, Rep. of Korea
2Department of Beauty, Seowon University, Cheongju, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to :
Sun-Hyoung Kim
E-mail: sun@kwu.ac.kr

Received: April 15, 2021; Revised: May 22, 2021; Accepted: May 27, 2021

© Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background: This study investigated the impact of perceptions on makeup behavior and levels of makeup use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Objective: It is presumed that during the COVID-19 outbreak, due to the restrictions on meeting people, mandatory wearing of facial masks, and the spread of contactless culture, there may have occurred a change in the makeup behavior, makeup perception, and level of makeup use. However, no empirical study has been conducted on this topic. Hence, this study aimed to identify the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on makeup use in female adults, using an empirical analysis method.
Methods: A survey was conducted on 245 female adults aged 18 years or older, residing in the Gwangju Metropolitan City. Empirical analysis was performed at a significance level of p<0.05, using the SPSS WIN 21.0 program. To identify general characteristics of survey respondents, a chi-squared test was performed, and to verify the feasibility of estimation tools, a factor analysis was conducted. To measure the level of reliability, Cronbach’s α coefficient was calculated. A paired samples t-test was used to determine the level of makeup use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lastly, a multiple linear regression analysis identified the impact of makeup behavior and makeup perception on the makeup usage level before and during COVID-19.
Results: The analysis of difference in makeup usage before and after the pandemic began showed that makeup usage during the pandemic (mean=2.84) decreased from the pre-pandemic level (mean=3.59). It was also found that higher aesthetics, synchronism, and courtesy as subfactors of makeup behavior led to an increase in makeup usage during the pandemic. In addition, this study also confirmed that respondents with higher social achievement as a subfactor of makeup perception increased their makeup usage during the pandemic.
Conclusion: Overall, makeup usage during COVID-19 decreased compared to the pre-pandemic level, but respondents with higher aesthetics, synchronism, and courtesy, which are subfactors of makeup behavior, and those with higher social achievement, a subfactor of makeup perception, tended to wear more makeup after the pandemic began. These findings may be used as basic data for cosmetic marketing.

Keywords: factors of makeup behavior, makeup perception, makeup usage level

  1. Kim EH, Kim SH. The effects of makeup behavior factors on self-esteem and psychological wellbeing in university Women. J Korean Soc Cosmetol 2019;25:702-12.
  2. Kim YE, Kim JD. A study on the use of color cosmetics according to women’s appearance interest. J Korean Soc Cosmet Cosmetol 2020;10:289-305.
  3. Kim SY, LI SH. Correlation among wearing masks because of COVID-19, makeup satisfaction and goal-oriented attitude. J Converg Inf Technol 2020;12:156-165.
  4. Park YM, Kim HY. A study on changes in women’s makeup interest and use patterns before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Asian J Beauty Cosmetol 2021;19:129-38.
    CrossRef
  5. Choi SK, Gil MC, Kim MS. The effect of state of makeup and makeup behavior factors on self-esteem and interpersonal relationship among middle and high school girls. AJMAHS 2017;7:409-20.
    CrossRef
  6. Han SJ. The influence of personal color perception, makeup behavior, cosmetic purchase behavior on image management behaviors [dissertation]. Gwangju: Honam University; 2017.
  7. Gwak JS. Make-up recognition and behavior according to ego identity and subjective age of middle-aged women [dissertation]. Busan: Tongmyong University; 2014.
  8. Lee JA. “Mask beauty” in the corona era [Internet]. Seoul: Cosmetic Mania News; c2021 [cited 2021 Feb 26].
    Available from: http://www.cmn.co.kr/sub/news/news_view.asp?news_idx=35282.
  9. Jo MJ. The effects of the body images and sociocultural attitudes towards appearance of sports participants on beauty management behavior - focused on the levels -[dissertation]. Seoul: SeoKyeong University; 2020.
  10. Kim HS. The effects of appearance management behavior and appearance satisfaction on quality of life: socio-cultural and goal-oriented behavioral approach [dissertation]. Gwangju: Chosun University; 2017.

Article

Original Article

J Cosmet Med 2021; 5(1): 24-29

Published online June 30, 2021 https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2021.5.1.24

Copyright © Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery.

The effect of makeup behavior and makeup perception on makeup usage level before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sun-Hyoung Kim, PhD1 , Eui-Hyoung Kim, PhD2

1Department of Beauty Science, Kwangju Women’s University, Gwangju, Rep. of Korea
2Department of Beauty, Seowon University, Cheongju, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to:Sun-Hyoung Kim
E-mail: sun@kwu.ac.kr

Received: April 15, 2021; Revised: May 22, 2021; Accepted: May 27, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background: This study investigated the impact of perceptions on makeup behavior and levels of makeup use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Objective: It is presumed that during the COVID-19 outbreak, due to the restrictions on meeting people, mandatory wearing of facial masks, and the spread of contactless culture, there may have occurred a change in the makeup behavior, makeup perception, and level of makeup use. However, no empirical study has been conducted on this topic. Hence, this study aimed to identify the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on makeup use in female adults, using an empirical analysis method.
Methods: A survey was conducted on 245 female adults aged 18 years or older, residing in the Gwangju Metropolitan City. Empirical analysis was performed at a significance level of p<0.05, using the SPSS WIN 21.0 program. To identify general characteristics of survey respondents, a chi-squared test was performed, and to verify the feasibility of estimation tools, a factor analysis was conducted. To measure the level of reliability, Cronbach’s α coefficient was calculated. A paired samples t-test was used to determine the level of makeup use before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lastly, a multiple linear regression analysis identified the impact of makeup behavior and makeup perception on the makeup usage level before and during COVID-19.
Results: The analysis of difference in makeup usage before and after the pandemic began showed that makeup usage during the pandemic (mean=2.84) decreased from the pre-pandemic level (mean=3.59). It was also found that higher aesthetics, synchronism, and courtesy as subfactors of makeup behavior led to an increase in makeup usage during the pandemic. In addition, this study also confirmed that respondents with higher social achievement as a subfactor of makeup perception increased their makeup usage during the pandemic.
Conclusion: Overall, makeup usage during COVID-19 decreased compared to the pre-pandemic level, but respondents with higher aesthetics, synchronism, and courtesy, which are subfactors of makeup behavior, and those with higher social achievement, a subfactor of makeup perception, tended to wear more makeup after the pandemic began. These findings may be used as basic data for cosmetic marketing.

Keywords: factors of makeup behavior, makeup perception, makeup usage level

References

  1. Kim EH, Kim SH. The effects of makeup behavior factors on self-esteem and psychological wellbeing in university Women. J Korean Soc Cosmetol 2019;25:702-12.
  2. Kim YE, Kim JD. A study on the use of color cosmetics according to women’s appearance interest. J Korean Soc Cosmet Cosmetol 2020;10:289-305.
  3. Kim SY, LI SH. Correlation among wearing masks because of COVID-19, makeup satisfaction and goal-oriented attitude. J Converg Inf Technol 2020;12:156-165.
  4. Park YM, Kim HY. A study on changes in women’s makeup interest and use patterns before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Asian J Beauty Cosmetol 2021;19:129-38.
    CrossRef
  5. Choi SK, Gil MC, Kim MS. The effect of state of makeup and makeup behavior factors on self-esteem and interpersonal relationship among middle and high school girls. AJMAHS 2017;7:409-20.
    CrossRef
  6. Han SJ. The influence of personal color perception, makeup behavior, cosmetic purchase behavior on image management behaviors [dissertation]. Gwangju: Honam University; 2017.
  7. Gwak JS. Make-up recognition and behavior according to ego identity and subjective age of middle-aged women [dissertation]. Busan: Tongmyong University; 2014.
  8. Lee JA. “Mask beauty” in the corona era [Internet]. Seoul: Cosmetic Mania News; c2021 [cited 2021 Feb 26]. Available from: http://www.cmn.co.kr/sub/news/news_view.asp?news_idx=35282.
  9. Jo MJ. The effects of the body images and sociocultural attitudes towards appearance of sports participants on beauty management behavior - focused on the levels -[dissertation]. Seoul: SeoKyeong University; 2020.
  10. Kim HS. The effects of appearance management behavior and appearance satisfaction on quality of life: socio-cultural and goal-oriented behavioral approach [dissertation]. Gwangju: Chosun University; 2017.

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Journal of Cosmetic Medicine

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