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J Cosmet Med 2022; 6(2): 89-94

Published online December 31, 2022

https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2022.6.2.89

A study on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ferulic acid as a cosmetic material

Su-Kyung Hong, MD1 , Mi-Yun Yoon, PhD2

1Department of Beauty Care, Dongnam Health University, Suwon, Rep. of Korea
2Department of Beauty Care, Pai Chai University, Daejeon, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to :
Mi-Yun Yoon
E-mail: ymy@pcu.ac.kr

Received: November 2, 2022; Accepted: November 20, 2022

© Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background: As the human body ages, it is exposed to various diseases; in particular, oxidative stress is the main factor that accelerates the occurrence of disease. Recently, as the interest in aging inhibition has increased, interest in natural plant-derived substances with excellent antioxidant properties has also increased.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to use ferulic acid for functional cosmetics as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. Ferulic acid has various pharmacological effects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and it consists of phenolic hydroxyl groups (-OH), double bonds, and carboxyl groups (-COOH).
Methods: To investigate the effect of ferulic acid on cytotoxicity, cell viability was measured using an 3-(4,5-dimethyliazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was performed to measure antioxidant activity in ferulic acid itself, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was utilized to measure antioxidant activity in RAW 264.7 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and histamine release were investigated to observe and measure the anti-inflammatory activity, respectively.
Results: The safety of ferulic acid cytotoxicity was confirmed. At concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml of ferulic acid, the DPPH radical exhibited high concentration-dependent activity of free radical scavenging. Ferulic acid suppressed ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited an antioxidant activity of 76% at the highest concentration of 100 μg/ml. The addition of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml ferulic acid to RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide resulted in NO production inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner, with a strong inhibition rate of 74% at 100 μg/ml. In addition, as a result of measuring the histamine inhibitory effect induced by melitin, ferulic acid was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner.
Conclusion: These results suggest that ferulic acid can be effectively used as a functional substance with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities in the development of cosmetic materials.

Keywords: antioxidants, ferulic acid, inflammation, phenolic, phenylpropanoid

Fig. 1.Chemical structure of ferulic acid.
  1. Dröge W. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev 2002;82:47-95.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Halliwell B, Aeschbach R, Löliger J, Aruoma OI. The characterization of antioxidants. Food Chem Toxicol 1995;33:601-17.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Papa S, Skulachev VP. Reactive oxygen species, mitochondria, apoptosis and aging. Mol Cell Biochem 1997;174:305-19.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Jeon GY, Kim YC. Anti-wrinkle and skin-whitening efficacies of Atriplex gmelinii methanol extract in a cell-free system. J Invest Cosmetol 2022;18:161-8.
  5. Choi CM, Berson DS. Cosmeceuticals. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2006;25:163-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Shin YS, Lee JE, Yeon IK, Do HW, Cheung JD, Kang CK, et al. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of extract with water and ethanol of oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var makuwa Makino). J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2008;51:194-9.
  7. Kim JS, Kim KL. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisiae capillaris extract. Korean J Aesthet Cosmetol 2015;13:805-12.
  8. Jew SS, Bae ON, Chung JH. Anti-inflammatory effects of asiaticoside on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in raw 264.7 cell line. J Toxicol Pub Health 2003;19:33-7.
  9. Ljung T, Lundberg S, Varsanyi M, Johansson C, Schmidt PT, Herulf M, et al. Rectal nitric oxide as biomarker in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: responders versus nonresponders. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12:3386-92.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Chen L, Deng H, Cui H, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, et al. Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs. Oncotarget 2017;9:7204-18.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Homey B, Steinhoff M, Ruzicka T, Leung DY. Cytokines and chemokines orchestrate atopic skin inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:178-89.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Moon PD, Na HJ, Kim HM. Action of enzyme food, green life enzyme on systemic and local anaphylaxis. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2003;3:46-50.
    CrossRef
  13. Kumar N, Pruthi V. Potential applications of ferulic acid from natural sources. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2014;4:86-93.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Han DS, Chun JW, Jeon SW, and Baek SH. The inhibitory effect of ferulic acid and related phenolic compounds against cancer cell lines. Yakhak Hoeji 2005;49:365-9.
  15. Graf E. Antioxidant potential of ferulic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 1992;13:435-48.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Liu YM, Shen JD, Xu LP, Li HB, Li YC, Yi LT. Ferulic acid inhibits neuro-inflammation in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Int Immunopharmacol 2017;45:128-34.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Kähkönen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, et al. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3954-62.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Kim A, Lee SY, Chung SK. Caffeic acid selectively eliminates teratogenic human-induced pluripotent stem cells via apoptotic cell death. Phytomedicine 2022;102:154144.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Lim HW. Anti-oxidant action and anti-aging activity of phenylpropanoid compounds [dissertation]. Suwon: Ajou University; 2005.
  20. Saeed MK, Zahra N, Shahzad K, Firdous S, Ahmad I, Ashraf M, et al. DPPH assay and reducing power activity of water extract of (Mentha longifolia) mint. LGU J Life Sci 2022;6:38-47.
    CrossRef
  21. Yoon MY, Lim HW, Sim SS, Choe TB. Anti-oxidant and antiaging activity on saxifraga stolonifera Meerburgh ethanol extract. Yakhak Hoeji 2007;51:343-9.
  22. Cho YJ, Seo MS, Kim JK, Lim Y, Chae G, Ha KS, et al. Silicainduced generation of reactive oxygen species in Rat2 fibroblast: role in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;262:708-12.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Kanski J, Aksenova M, Stoyanova A, Butterfield DA. Ferulic acid antioxidant protection against hydroxyl and peroxyl radical oxidation in synaptosomal and neuronal cell culture systems in vitro: structure-activity studies. J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:273-81.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Cao YJ, Zhang YM, Qi JP, Liu R, Zhang H, He LC. Ferulic acid inhibits H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells via inhibition of the NADPH oxidase and NF-κB pathway. Int Immunopharmacol 2015;28:1018-25.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev 2007;87:315-424.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  26. Furchgott RF, Zawadzki JV. The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine. Nature 1980;288:373-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Edwards PD, Topping D, Kontaridis MI, Moldawer LL, Copeland EM 3rd, Lind DS. Arginine-enhanced enteral nutrition augments the growth of a nitric oxide-producing tumor. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997;21:215-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Smolinska MJ, Horwood NJ, Page TH, Smallie T, Foxwell BM. Chemical inhibition of Src family kinases affects major LPSactivated pathways in primary human macrophages. Mol Immunol 2008;45:990-1000.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Lee E, Choi EJ, Cheong H, Kim YR, Ryu SY, Kim KM. Antiallergic actions of the leaves of Castanea crenata and isolation of an active component responsible for the inhibition of mast cell degranulation. Arch Pharm Res 1999;22:320-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Article

Original Article

J Cosmet Med 2022; 6(2): 89-94

Published online December 31, 2022 https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2022.6.2.89

Copyright © Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery.

A study on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ferulic acid as a cosmetic material

Su-Kyung Hong, MD1 , Mi-Yun Yoon, PhD2

1Department of Beauty Care, Dongnam Health University, Suwon, Rep. of Korea
2Department of Beauty Care, Pai Chai University, Daejeon, Rep. of Korea

Correspondence to:Mi-Yun Yoon
E-mail: ymy@pcu.ac.kr

Received: November 2, 2022; Accepted: November 20, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background: As the human body ages, it is exposed to various diseases; in particular, oxidative stress is the main factor that accelerates the occurrence of disease. Recently, as the interest in aging inhibition has increased, interest in natural plant-derived substances with excellent antioxidant properties has also increased.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to use ferulic acid for functional cosmetics as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. Ferulic acid has various pharmacological effects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and it consists of phenolic hydroxyl groups (-OH), double bonds, and carboxyl groups (-COOH).
Methods: To investigate the effect of ferulic acid on cytotoxicity, cell viability was measured using an 3-(4,5-dimethyliazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was performed to measure antioxidant activity in ferulic acid itself, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was utilized to measure antioxidant activity in RAW 264.7 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and histamine release were investigated to observe and measure the anti-inflammatory activity, respectively.
Results: The safety of ferulic acid cytotoxicity was confirmed. At concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml of ferulic acid, the DPPH radical exhibited high concentration-dependent activity of free radical scavenging. Ferulic acid suppressed ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited an antioxidant activity of 76% at the highest concentration of 100 μg/ml. The addition of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml ferulic acid to RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide resulted in NO production inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner, with a strong inhibition rate of 74% at 100 μg/ml. In addition, as a result of measuring the histamine inhibitory effect induced by melitin, ferulic acid was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner.
Conclusion: These results suggest that ferulic acid can be effectively used as a functional substance with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities in the development of cosmetic materials.

Keywords: antioxidants, ferulic acid, inflammation, phenolic, phenylpropanoid

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Chemical structure of ferulic acid.
Journal of Cosmetic Medicine 2022; 6: 89-94https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2022.6.2.89

References

  1. Dröge W. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev 2002;82:47-95.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Halliwell B, Aeschbach R, Löliger J, Aruoma OI. The characterization of antioxidants. Food Chem Toxicol 1995;33:601-17.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Papa S, Skulachev VP. Reactive oxygen species, mitochondria, apoptosis and aging. Mol Cell Biochem 1997;174:305-19.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Jeon GY, Kim YC. Anti-wrinkle and skin-whitening efficacies of Atriplex gmelinii methanol extract in a cell-free system. J Invest Cosmetol 2022;18:161-8.
  5. Choi CM, Berson DS. Cosmeceuticals. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2006;25:163-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Shin YS, Lee JE, Yeon IK, Do HW, Cheung JD, Kang CK, et al. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of extract with water and ethanol of oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var makuwa Makino). J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2008;51:194-9.
  7. Kim JS, Kim KL. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisiae capillaris extract. Korean J Aesthet Cosmetol 2015;13:805-12.
  8. Jew SS, Bae ON, Chung JH. Anti-inflammatory effects of asiaticoside on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in raw 264.7 cell line. J Toxicol Pub Health 2003;19:33-7.
  9. Ljung T, Lundberg S, Varsanyi M, Johansson C, Schmidt PT, Herulf M, et al. Rectal nitric oxide as biomarker in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: responders versus nonresponders. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12:3386-92.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Chen L, Deng H, Cui H, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, et al. Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs. Oncotarget 2017;9:7204-18.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Homey B, Steinhoff M, Ruzicka T, Leung DY. Cytokines and chemokines orchestrate atopic skin inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:178-89.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Moon PD, Na HJ, Kim HM. Action of enzyme food, green life enzyme on systemic and local anaphylaxis. Orient Pharm Exp Med 2003;3:46-50.
    CrossRef
  13. Kumar N, Pruthi V. Potential applications of ferulic acid from natural sources. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2014;4:86-93.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Han DS, Chun JW, Jeon SW, and Baek SH. The inhibitory effect of ferulic acid and related phenolic compounds against cancer cell lines. Yakhak Hoeji 2005;49:365-9.
  15. Graf E. Antioxidant potential of ferulic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 1992;13:435-48.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Liu YM, Shen JD, Xu LP, Li HB, Li YC, Yi LT. Ferulic acid inhibits neuro-inflammation in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Int Immunopharmacol 2017;45:128-34.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Kähkönen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, et al. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3954-62.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Kim A, Lee SY, Chung SK. Caffeic acid selectively eliminates teratogenic human-induced pluripotent stem cells via apoptotic cell death. Phytomedicine 2022;102:154144.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Lim HW. Anti-oxidant action and anti-aging activity of phenylpropanoid compounds [dissertation]. Suwon: Ajou University; 2005.
  20. Saeed MK, Zahra N, Shahzad K, Firdous S, Ahmad I, Ashraf M, et al. DPPH assay and reducing power activity of water extract of (Mentha longifolia) mint. LGU J Life Sci 2022;6:38-47.
    CrossRef
  21. Yoon MY, Lim HW, Sim SS, Choe TB. Anti-oxidant and antiaging activity on saxifraga stolonifera Meerburgh ethanol extract. Yakhak Hoeji 2007;51:343-9.
  22. Cho YJ, Seo MS, Kim JK, Lim Y, Chae G, Ha KS, et al. Silicainduced generation of reactive oxygen species in Rat2 fibroblast: role in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;262:708-12.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Kanski J, Aksenova M, Stoyanova A, Butterfield DA. Ferulic acid antioxidant protection against hydroxyl and peroxyl radical oxidation in synaptosomal and neuronal cell culture systems in vitro: structure-activity studies. J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:273-81.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Cao YJ, Zhang YM, Qi JP, Liu R, Zhang H, He LC. Ferulic acid inhibits H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells via inhibition of the NADPH oxidase and NF-κB pathway. Int Immunopharmacol 2015;28:1018-25.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Pacher P, Beckman JS, Liaudet L. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiol Rev 2007;87:315-424.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  26. Furchgott RF, Zawadzki JV. The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine. Nature 1980;288:373-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Edwards PD, Topping D, Kontaridis MI, Moldawer LL, Copeland EM 3rd, Lind DS. Arginine-enhanced enteral nutrition augments the growth of a nitric oxide-producing tumor. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997;21:215-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Smolinska MJ, Horwood NJ, Page TH, Smallie T, Foxwell BM. Chemical inhibition of Src family kinases affects major LPSactivated pathways in primary human macrophages. Mol Immunol 2008;45:990-1000.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Lee E, Choi EJ, Cheong H, Kim YR, Ryu SY, Kim KM. Antiallergic actions of the leaves of Castanea crenata and isolation of an active component responsible for the inhibition of mast cell degranulation. Arch Pharm Res 1999;22:320-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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