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J Cosmet Med 2022; 6(2): 67-71

Published online December 31, 2022

https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2022.6.2.67

Review of topical vitamins in photoaging skin

Cheuk Hung Lee, MBBS (HK), FHKAM (MED), FHKCP, MScPD (Cardiff), MRCP (UK), DPD (Wales), DipDerm (Glasgow), PGDipClinDerm (London), MRCP (London), GradDipDerm (NUS), DipMed (CUHK)1 , Kar Wai Alvin Lee, MBChB (CUHK), DCH (Sydney), Dip Derm (Glasgow), MScClinDerm (Cardiff), MScPD (Cardiff), DipMed (CUHK), DCH (Sydney)1 , Kwin Wah Chan, MBChB (CUHK), MScPD (Cardiff), PgDipPD (Cardiff), PGDipClinDerm (Lond), DipMed (CUHK), DCH (Sydney)1 , Kar Fai Victor Lee, MBBS, MRCP (UK), FRCP (Glasgow), FHKCP, FHKAM (Medicine)2 , Kar Wai Phoebe Lam, MBCHB (OTAGO), MRCS (EDIN), MSCPD (CARDIFF)3

1Ever Keen Medical Centre, Hong Kong
2London Heart Practice, Hong Kong
3Perfect Skin Solution, Hong Kong

Correspondence to :
Kar Wai Alvin Lee
E-mail: alvin429@yahoo.com

Received: October 27, 2022; Revised: November 20, 2022; Accepted: November 21, 2022

© Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Photoaging is a process of normal skin architecture damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. Topical vitamins have been used to treat these conditions. The authors aimed to understand the mechanism and level of evidence of topical vitamins used to treat photodamaged skin. A range of topical vitamins has been used in cosmetic medicine for many years to treat photodamaged skin. This review article compares their efficacy and level of evidence. This study was a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of different topical vitamins. Keywords including “Photoaging,” “Botanicals,” “Peptides,” “Retinoids,” “Vitamins” were searched on Ovid, PubMed, MEDLINE for relevant studies published on photoaging treatment. There is a wealth of Level I evidence supporting the use of topical retinoic acid, vitamins B and C. There is evidence supporting the use of topical vitamin E although it is mainly drawn from Level IV studies of the evidence hierarchy. Topical vitamins can effectively treat photodamaged skin.
Level of Evidence: I

Keywords: ascorbic acid, niacinamide, retinoids, skin aging, tocopherols, vitamins

Fig. 1.Evidence hierarchy according to Oxford Center for evidence-based medicine [3]. RCT, randomized controlled trials; SR, systematic review.
  1. Poon F, Kang S, Chien AL. Mechanisms and treatments of photoaging. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2015;31:65-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Photoageing: mechanism, prevention and therapy. Br J Dermatol 2007;157:874-87.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Oxford centre for evidence-based medicine: levels of evidence (March 2009) [Internet]. Oxford: University of Oxford; c2009 [cited 2022 Dec 5].
    Available from: https://www.cebm.ox.ac.uk/resources/levelsof-evidence/oxford-centre-for-evidence-based-medicinelevels-of-evidence-march-2009.
  4. Glick AB, Flanders KC, Danielpour D, Yuspa SH, Sporn MB. Retinoic acid induces transforming growth factor-beta 2 in cultured keratinocytes and mouse epidermis. Cell Regul 1989;1:87-97.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  5. Kim HJ, Bogdan NJ, D’Agostaro LJ, Gold LI, Bryce GF. Effect of topical retinoic acids on the levels of collagen mRNA during the repair of UVB-induced dermal damage in the hairless mouse and the possible role of TGF-β as a mediator. J Invest Dermatol 1992;98:359-63.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Griffiths CE, Russman AN, Majmudar G, Singer RS, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Restoration of collagen formation in photodamaged human skin by tretinoin (retinoic acid). N Engl J Med 1993;329:530-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Kligman LH, Duo CH, Kligman AM. Topical retinoic acid enhances the repair of ultraviolet damaged dermal connective tissue. Connect Tissue Res 1984;12:139-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Griffiths CE, Kang S, Ellis CN, Kim KJ, Finkel LJ, Ortiz-Ferrer LC, et al. Two concentrations of topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) cause similar improvement of photoaging but different degrees of irritation. A double-blind, vehicle-controlled comparison of 0.1% and 0.025% tretinoin creams. Arch Dermatol 1995;131:1037-44.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Kang S, Krueger GG, Tanghetti EA, Lew-Kaya D, Sefton J, Walker PS, et al.; Tazarotene Cream in Photodamage Study Group. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of tazarotene 0.1% cream in the treatment of photodamage. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:268-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Bhawan J, Gonzalez-Serva A, Nehal K, Labadie R, Lufrano L, Thorne EG, et al. Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:666-72. Erratum in: Arch Dermatol 1991;127:1382.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Weinstein GD, Nigra TP, Pochi PE, Savin RC, Allan A, Benik K, et al. Topical tretinoin for treatment of photodamaged skin. A multicenter study. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:659-65.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Samuel M, Brooke RC, Hollis S, Griffiths CE. Interventions for photodamaged skin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;1:CD001782.
    CrossRef
  13. Creidi P, Vienne MP, Ochonisky S, Lauze C, Turlier V, Lagarde JM, et al. Profilometric evaluation of photodamage after topical retinaldehyde and retinoic acid treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;39:960-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Kawada A, Konishi N, Oiso N, Kawara S, Date A. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide. J Dermatol 2008;35:637-42.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Bissett DL, Miyamoto K, Sun P, Li J, Berge CA. Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin. Int J Cosmet Sci 2004;26:231-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF. Double-blind, half-face study comparing topical vitamin C and vehicle for rejuvenation of photodamage. Dermatol Surg 2002;28:231-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1091-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, Grichnik JM, Omar MM, Monteiro-Riviere NA, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Eberlein-König B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:45-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ. Molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions in skin. FASEB J 1996;10:1002-13.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Wohlrab J, Kreft D. Niacinamide - mechanisms of action and its topical use in dermatology. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2014;27:311-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Al-Niaimi F, Chiang NYZ. Topical vitamin C and the skin: mechanisms of action and clinical applications. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017;10:14-7.
  23. Thiele JJ, Hsieh SN, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin E: critical review of its current use in cosmetic and clinical dermatology. Dermatol Surg 2005;31(7 Pt 2):805-13; discussion 813.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Article

Review Article

J Cosmet Med 2022; 6(2): 67-71

Published online December 31, 2022 https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2022.6.2.67

Copyright © Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery.

Review of topical vitamins in photoaging skin

Cheuk Hung Lee, MBBS (HK), FHKAM (MED), FHKCP, MScPD (Cardiff), MRCP (UK), DPD (Wales), DipDerm (Glasgow), PGDipClinDerm (London), MRCP (London), GradDipDerm (NUS), DipMed (CUHK)1 , Kar Wai Alvin Lee, MBChB (CUHK), DCH (Sydney), Dip Derm (Glasgow), MScClinDerm (Cardiff), MScPD (Cardiff), DipMed (CUHK), DCH (Sydney)1 , Kwin Wah Chan, MBChB (CUHK), MScPD (Cardiff), PgDipPD (Cardiff), PGDipClinDerm (Lond), DipMed (CUHK), DCH (Sydney)1 , Kar Fai Victor Lee, MBBS, MRCP (UK), FRCP (Glasgow), FHKCP, FHKAM (Medicine)2 , Kar Wai Phoebe Lam, MBCHB (OTAGO), MRCS (EDIN), MSCPD (CARDIFF)3

1Ever Keen Medical Centre, Hong Kong
2London Heart Practice, Hong Kong
3Perfect Skin Solution, Hong Kong

Correspondence to:Kar Wai Alvin Lee
E-mail: alvin429@yahoo.com

Received: October 27, 2022; Revised: November 20, 2022; Accepted: November 21, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Photoaging is a process of normal skin architecture damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. Topical vitamins have been used to treat these conditions. The authors aimed to understand the mechanism and level of evidence of topical vitamins used to treat photodamaged skin. A range of topical vitamins has been used in cosmetic medicine for many years to treat photodamaged skin. This review article compares their efficacy and level of evidence. This study was a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of different topical vitamins. Keywords including “Photoaging,” “Botanicals,” “Peptides,” “Retinoids,” “Vitamins” were searched on Ovid, PubMed, MEDLINE for relevant studies published on photoaging treatment. There is a wealth of Level I evidence supporting the use of topical retinoic acid, vitamins B and C. There is evidence supporting the use of topical vitamin E although it is mainly drawn from Level IV studies of the evidence hierarchy. Topical vitamins can effectively treat photodamaged skin.
Level of Evidence: I

Keywords: ascorbic acid, niacinamide, retinoids, skin aging, tocopherols, vitamins

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Evidence hierarchy according to Oxford Center for evidence-based medicine [3]. RCT, randomized controlled trials; SR, systematic review.
Journal of Cosmetic Medicine 2022; 6: 67-71https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2022.6.2.67

References

  1. Poon F, Kang S, Chien AL. Mechanisms and treatments of photoaging. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2015;31:65-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Photoageing: mechanism, prevention and therapy. Br J Dermatol 2007;157:874-87.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Oxford centre for evidence-based medicine: levels of evidence (March 2009) [Internet]. Oxford: University of Oxford; c2009 [cited 2022 Dec 5]. Available from: https://www.cebm.ox.ac.uk/resources/levelsof-evidence/oxford-centre-for-evidence-based-medicinelevels-of-evidence-march-2009.
  4. Glick AB, Flanders KC, Danielpour D, Yuspa SH, Sporn MB. Retinoic acid induces transforming growth factor-beta 2 in cultured keratinocytes and mouse epidermis. Cell Regul 1989;1:87-97.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  5. Kim HJ, Bogdan NJ, D’Agostaro LJ, Gold LI, Bryce GF. Effect of topical retinoic acids on the levels of collagen mRNA during the repair of UVB-induced dermal damage in the hairless mouse and the possible role of TGF-β as a mediator. J Invest Dermatol 1992;98:359-63.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Griffiths CE, Russman AN, Majmudar G, Singer RS, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Restoration of collagen formation in photodamaged human skin by tretinoin (retinoic acid). N Engl J Med 1993;329:530-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Kligman LH, Duo CH, Kligman AM. Topical retinoic acid enhances the repair of ultraviolet damaged dermal connective tissue. Connect Tissue Res 1984;12:139-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Griffiths CE, Kang S, Ellis CN, Kim KJ, Finkel LJ, Ortiz-Ferrer LC, et al. Two concentrations of topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) cause similar improvement of photoaging but different degrees of irritation. A double-blind, vehicle-controlled comparison of 0.1% and 0.025% tretinoin creams. Arch Dermatol 1995;131:1037-44.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Kang S, Krueger GG, Tanghetti EA, Lew-Kaya D, Sefton J, Walker PS, et al.; Tazarotene Cream in Photodamage Study Group. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of tazarotene 0.1% cream in the treatment of photodamage. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:268-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Bhawan J, Gonzalez-Serva A, Nehal K, Labadie R, Lufrano L, Thorne EG, et al. Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin. A histologic study. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:666-72. Erratum in: Arch Dermatol 1991;127:1382.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Weinstein GD, Nigra TP, Pochi PE, Savin RC, Allan A, Benik K, et al. Topical tretinoin for treatment of photodamaged skin. A multicenter study. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:659-65.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Samuel M, Brooke RC, Hollis S, Griffiths CE. Interventions for photodamaged skin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;1:CD001782.
    CrossRef
  13. Creidi P, Vienne MP, Ochonisky S, Lauze C, Turlier V, Lagarde JM, et al. Profilometric evaluation of photodamage after topical retinaldehyde and retinoic acid treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;39:960-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Kawada A, Konishi N, Oiso N, Kawara S, Date A. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide. J Dermatol 2008;35:637-42.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Bissett DL, Miyamoto K, Sun P, Li J, Berge CA. Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin. Int J Cosmet Sci 2004;26:231-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF. Double-blind, half-face study comparing topical vitamin C and vehicle for rejuvenation of photodamage. Dermatol Surg 2002;28:231-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1091-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, Grichnik JM, Omar MM, Monteiro-Riviere NA, et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-74.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Eberlein-König B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:45-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ. Molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions in skin. FASEB J 1996;10:1002-13.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Wohlrab J, Kreft D. Niacinamide - mechanisms of action and its topical use in dermatology. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2014;27:311-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Al-Niaimi F, Chiang NYZ. Topical vitamin C and the skin: mechanisms of action and clinical applications. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017;10:14-7.
  23. Thiele JJ, Hsieh SN, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin E: critical review of its current use in cosmetic and clinical dermatology. Dermatol Surg 2005;31(7 Pt 2):805-13; discussion 813.
    Pubmed CrossRef

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