J Cosmet Med 2019; 3(2): 94-101  https://doi.org/10.25056/JCM.2019.3.2.94
The convergence of three-dimensional printing and nail-art technology
Namsoo Peter Kim, PhD1,2, Jihye Kim, BS1, Myung Sook Han, PhD3
1Center for Printable Materials Certificate, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States
2Department of Metallurgical Materials and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States
3Department of Beauty Design, Dongu College, Busan, Rep. of Korea
Myung Sook Han
E-mail: mshan1009@hanmail.net
Received: December 9, 2019; Revised: December 18, 2019; Accepted: December 18, 2019; Published online: December 31, 2019.
© Korean Society of Korean Cosmetic Surgery. All rights reserved.

cc This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: With the convergence of internet of things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies with three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing, the applications have extended to beauty arts and cosmetics.
Objective: The purpose of this research is to confirm the possibility of the convergence of IoT and AI 3D printing technology for cosmetics and beauty art for the 21st century.
Methods: From January to October 2019, experienced 3D designers and customers were isolated, and more than 1,000 patterns were verified. Ultraviolet light-emitting diod (UV-LED) technology with built-in patented devices operating on a limited basis was used, and processes using low energies of 3 watts or less were applied. To control the 3D shape of the material, 3D printing technology with the z-axis at a height of 50 microns was applied to the shape to obtain a length of more than 3 cm. Completed products realized via custom design and manufacturing processes were delivered to the customers who installed them on their own.
Results: More than 1,000 patterns were successfully printed through Wi-Fi from all over the world for AI-recommended nail art and tattoos. The stability of the IoT has confirmed the quality of 3D printed nails and two-dimensional (2D) tattoos. Moreover, customers are not exposed harmful environments associated with tattoos and 3D nail art.
Conclusion: Application of 3D printing technology to the traditional nail art industry allows for the creation of sophisticated and customized shapes in a short period of time with a precision control of less than 50 microns in various colored 3D structures on artificial nail tips. This successful result of the convergence of AI and IoT 3D printing technology in the field of nail art and tattoos is expected to apply further to the fields of cosmetology, makeup, plastic surgery, and art.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; convergence; cosmetics; internet of things; nail art; three-dimensional printing
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